Российское диализное общество

Просмотр статьи

<< Вернуться к списку статей журнала

Том 12 №3 2010 год - Нефрология и диализ

Нефротоксические эффекты высокоактивной антиретровирусной терапии (Обзор литературы)


Ющук Н.Д. Волгина Г.В. Томилина Н.А. Гаджикулиева М.М. Кочарян К.А.

Аннотация: Высокоактивная антиретровирусная терапия (ВААРТ) значительно снизила летальность и риск прогрессии спид. Наряду с этими положительными эффеками, увеличился и риск повреждения почек. Различают следующие наиболее распространенные варианты последнего: острое повреждение почек, тубулоинтерстициальный нефрит, кристаллурия, нефролитиаз, синдром Фанкони и хроническая почечная недостаточность. Кроме того, ожидается, что улучшение выживаемости пациентов с ВИЧ, приведет к увеличению частоты развития хронических, связанных с ВААРТ метаболических осложнений, таких как диабет и дислипидемия, которые, в свою очередь, могут способствовать сосудистым заболеваниям почек и снижению функции почек. В обзоре описаны частота и механизмы неблагоприятных побочных почечных эффектов антиретровирусной терапии.

Весь текст



Ключевые слова: вирус иммунодефицита человека, антиретровирусная терапия, острое повреждение почек, тубулоинтерстициальный нефрит, кристаллурия, нефролитиаз, синдром Фанкони, хроническая почечная недостаточность, human immunodeficiency virus, antiretroviral therapy, acute kidney injury, tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystalluria, nephrolithiasis, Fanconi syndrome, chronic renal failure

Список литературы:
  1. Клиническая фармакология: учебник для вузов / Под ред. В.Г. Кукеса. – 4-е изд., перераб. и доп.- М.: ГЕОТАР-Медиа, 2008. 1056 с.
  2. Abbott K.C., Swanson S.J., Agodoa L.Y. et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and kidney transplantation in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and modern immunosuppression. // J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2004. Vol. 15. P.1633–1639.
  3. Ahmad M. Abacavir-induced reversible Fanconi syndrome with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. // J. Postgrad. 2006. Vol. 52. P. 296–297.
  4. Anderson P.L., Lichtenstein K.A., Gerig N.E. et al. Atazanavir-containing renal calculi in an HIV-infected patient. // AIDS 2007. Vol.mhtml:file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\1\Рабочий%20стол\Статья-ВИЧ\Chicago%20Journals%20-%20Clinical%20Infectious%20Diseases.mht!http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/na101/home/literatum/publisher/uchicago/journals/entities/2009.gif21. P. 1060–1062.
  5. Angel-Moreno-Maroto A., Suarez-Castellano L., Hernandez-Cabrera M. et al. Severe efavirenz-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (not-DRESS) with acute renal failure. // J. Infect. 2006. Vol. 52. P. e39-e40.
  6. Barry M., Gibbons S., Back D. et al. Protease inhibitors in patients with HIV disease. Clinically important pharmacokinetic considerations.// Clin. Pharmacokinet. 1997. Vol. 32. P. 194–209.
  7. Bellomo R. The epidemiology of acute renal failure: 1975 versus 2005.// Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 2006. Vol. 12(6). P. 557–560.
  8. Benveniste O., Longuet P., Duval X. et al. Two episodes of acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and severe hepatitis in an AIDS patient successively treated with ritonavir and indinavir. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 1999. Vol. 28 (5)/ P. 1180–1181.
  9. Bergersen B.M., Sandvik L., Dunlop O. et al. Prevalence of hypertension in HIV-positive patients on highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) compared with HAART-naive and HIV-negative controls: Results from a Norwegian study of 721 patients. // Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis 2003. Vol. 22. P. 731–736.
  10. Berns J.S., Cohen R.M., Rudnick M.R. Antiviral agents. // In: Clinical Nephrotoxins. Renal Injury from Drugs and Therapeutics, 2nd Ed., edited by DeBroe M.E., Porter G.A., Bennett W.M. et al. / Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003, pp 249–263.
  11. Berns J.S., Cohen R.M., Silverman M. et al. Acute renal failure due to indinavir crystalluria and nephrolithiasis: Report of two cases. // Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1997. Vol. 30. P. 558–560.
  12. Boffa J. J. Stenose atheromateuse de l’artere renale chez le jeune patient VIH. // Nephrol. Ther. 2007. Vol. 5. P. 303
  13. Boubaker K., Sudre P., Bally F. et al. Changes in renal function associated with indinavir. // AIDS 1998. Vol. 12. P. F249–254.
  14. Breton G. Tubulopathy consecutive to tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy in two patients infected with HIV-1. // Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 2004. Vol. 36. P. 527–528.
  15. Brewster U. C., Perazella M. A. Acute interstitial nephritis associated with atazanavir, a new protease inhibitor. // Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2004. Vol. 44. P. e81-e84.
  16. Brown T. T. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. // Arch. Intern. Med. 2005. Vol. 165. P. 1179.1184.
  17. Buchacz K., Young B., Baker R.K. et al. Renal function in patients receiving tenofovir with ritonavir/lopinavir or ritonavir/atazanavir in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) cohort. // J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2006. Vol. 200943. P. 626–628.
  18. Castro J.G., Gutierrez L. Rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure probably related to the interaction of atorvastatin and delavirdine. // Am. J. Med. 2002. Vol. 112. P. 505
  19. Cattelan A.M., Trevenzoli M., Naso A. Severe hypertension and renal atrophy associated with indinavir. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2000. Vol. 200930. P. 619–621.
  20. Chan-Tack K.M., Truffa M.M., Struble K.A. et al. Atazanavir-associated nephrolithiasis: cases from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System. // AIDS 2007. Vol. 21 (9). P. 1215–1218.
  21. Chen S.C., Nankivell B.J., Dwyer D.E. Indinavir-induced renal failure [letter]. // AIDS 1998. Vol.200912. P. 440–441.
  22. Chow D.C., Souza S.A., Chen R. et al. Elevated blood pressure in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. // HIV Clin. Trials 2003. Vol. 4. P. 411–416.
  23. Ciarimboli G. Individual P. PKC-phorylation sites in organic cation transporter 1 determine substrate selectivity and transport regulation. // J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2005. Vol. 16. P. 1562–1570.
  24. Cirino C.M., Kan V.L. Hypokalemia in HIV patients on tenofovir. // AIDS 2006. Vol. 20(12). P. 1671–1673.
  25. Coca S., Perazella M.A. Rapid communication: acute renal failure associated with tenofovir: evidence of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. // Am. J. Med. Sci. 2002. Vol. 324 (6). P. 342–344.
  26. Couzigou C., Daudon M., Meynard J.L. et al. Urolithiasis in HIV-positive patients treated with atazanavir. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2007. Vol. 45 (8). P. 105–108.
  27. Crane H. M., Van Rompaey S. E., Kitahata M. M. Antiretroviral medications associated with elevated blood pressure among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. // AIDS 2006. Vol. 20. P. 1019–1026.
  28. Crane H.M. Amprenavir and didanosine are associated with declining kidney function among patients receiving tenofovir. // AIDS 2007. Vol. 21(11). P. 1431–1439.
  29. Creput C., Gonzalez-Canali G., Hill G. et al. Renal lesions in HIV-1-positive patient treated with tenofovir. // AIDS 2003. Vol. 17 (6). P. 935–937.
  30. Dasgupta A., Okhuysen P.C. Pharmacokinetic and other drug interactions in patients with AIDS. // Ther. Drug Monit. 2001. Vol. 23. P. 591–605.
  31. Daudon M., Estepa L., Viard J.P. et al. Urinary stones in HIV-1-positive patients treated with indinavir. // Lancet 1997. Vol. 349. P. 1294–1295.
  32. Daugas E., Rougier J.P., Hill G. HAART-related nephropathies in HIV-infected patients. // Kidney Int. 2005. Vol. 67. P. 393–403.
  33. de Maat M.M., Ekhart G.C., Huitema A.D. et al. Drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and comedicated agents. // Clin. Pharmacokinet. 2003. Vol. 42. P. 223–282.
  34. Dieleman J.P., van Rossum A.M., Stricker B.C. et al. Persistent leukocyturia and loss of renal function in a prospectively monitored cohort of HIV-infected patients treated with indinavir. // J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2003. Vol.2009 32. P. 135–142.
  35. Earle K. E., Seneviratne T., Shaker J. et al. Fanconi’s syndrome in HIV-adults: report of three cases and literature review. // J. Bone Miner. Res. 2004. Vol. 19. P. 714–721.
  36. Friis-Moller N., Weber R., Reiss P. et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients − Association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study. // AIDS 2003. Vol. 17. P. 1179–1193.
  37. Gagnon R.F., Tecimer S.N., Watters A.K. et al. The natural history of leukocyturia associated with indinavir treatment in HIV+ individuals. // Am. J. Nephrol. 2000. Vol. 20. P. 448–454.
  38. Gagnon R.F., Tecimer S.N., Watters A.K. et al. Prospective study of urinalysis abnormalities in HIV-positive individuals treated with indinavir. // Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2000. Vol. 36. P. 507–515.
  39. Gallant J. E. Tenofovir DF, emtricitabine, and efavirenz vs zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz for HIV. // N. Engl. J. Med. 2006. Vol. 354. P. 251–260.
  40. Gallant J.E., Parish M.A., Keruly J.C. et al. Changes in renal function associated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate treatment, compared with nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor treatment. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005. Vol. 40 (8). P. 1194–1198.
  41. Gallant J.E., Staszewski S., Pozniak A. et al. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial. // JAMA 2004. Vol. 292 (2). P. 191–201.
  42. Gazzaruso C., Bruno R., Garzaniti A. et al. Hypertension among HIV patients: Prevalence and relationships to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. // J. Hypertens. 2003. Vol. 21. P. 1377–1382.
  43. Grabe D.W., Eisele G., Miller C. et al. Indinavir-induced nephropathy. // Clin. Nephrol. 1999. Vol.200951. P. 181–183.
  44. Gupta S. K. Tenofovir-associated Fanconi syndrome: review of the FDA adverse event reporting system. // AIDS Patient Care STDS 2008. Vol. 22. P. 99–103.
  45. Gupta S.K., Eustace J.A., Winston J.A. et al. Guidelines for the management of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients: recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2005. Vol. 40(11). P. 1559–1585.
  46. Hamm M., Wawroschek F., Rathert P. Urinary cytology changes in protease inhibitor induced urolithiasis. // J. Urol. 2000. Vol.2009163. P. 1249–1250.
  47. Hammer S. M., Eron Jr J.J., Reiss Р. et al. Recommendations of the International AIDS Society – USA Panel, 2008.// JAMA 2008. Vol. 300(5). P. 555–570.
  48. Hanabusa H., Tagami H., Hataya H. Renal atrophy associated with long-term treatment with indinavir [letter]. // N. Engl. J. Med. 1999. Vol. 2009340. P. 392–393.
  49. Harris M. Nephrotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. // Expert Opin. Drug Saf. 2008. Vol. 7. P. 389–400.
  50. Herman J.S., Ives N.J., Nelson M. et al. Incidence and risk factors for the development of indinavir-associated renal complications. // J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2001. Vol. 48. P. 355–360.
  51. Hortin G.L., King C., Miller K.D. et al. Detection of indinavir crystals in urine: dependence on method of analysis. // Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2000. Vol. 124. P. 246–250.
  52. Izzedine H. Renal safety of tenofovir in HIV treatment-experienced patients. // AIDS 2004. Vol. 18. P. 1074–1076.
  53. Izzedine H., Harris M., Perazella M. et al. The nephrotoxic effects of hAArT. // Nat. Rev. Nephrol. 2009. Vol. 5. P. 563–573.
  54. Izzedine H., Hulot J.S., Vittecoq D. et al. Long-term renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: data from a double-blind randomized active-controlled multicentre study. // Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2005. Vol. 20 (4). P. 743–746.
  55. Izzedine H., Launay-Vacher V., Deray G. Antiviral drug-induced nephrotoxicity. // Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2005. Vol. 45. P. 804–817.
  56. Izzedine H., Launay-Vacher V., Deray G. Fanconi syndrome associated with didanosine therapy. // AIDS 2005. Vol. 19. P. 844–845.
  57. Jain A.B., Venkataramanan R., Eghtesad B. et al. Effect of coadministered lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra) on tacrolimus blood concentration in liver transplantation patients. // Liver Transpl. 2003. Vol. 9. P. 954–960.
  58. James C.W., Steinhaus M.C., Szabo S. et al. Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity: Case report and review of the literature. // Pharmacotherapy 2004. Vol. 24. P. 415–418.
  59. James J.S. St John’s wort warning: Do not combine with protease inhibitors, NNRTIs. // AIDS Treat. News 2000. Vol. 337. P. 3–5.
  60. Jaradat M., Phillips C., Yum M.N. et al. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis attributable to indinavir therapy. // Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2000. Vol.200935. P. E16.
  61. Jeffrey S. B., Kasbekar N. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and the Kidney: An Update on Antiretroviral Medications for Nephrologists. // Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2006. Vol.20091. P. 117–129.
  62. Johnson M.A., Moore K.H., Yuen G.J. et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics of lamivudine. // Clin. Pharmacokinet. 1999. Vol.2009200936. P. 41–66.
  63. Jones R. Renal dysfunction with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens is not observed more frequently: a cohort and case-control study. // J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2004. Vol.2009 37. P. 1489–1495.
  64. Joshi M. K., Liu H. H. Acute rhabdomyolysis and renal failure in HIV-infected patients: risk factors, presentation, and pathophysiology. // AIDS Patient Care STDs 2000. Vol.2009 14. P. 541–548.
  65. Karras A., Lafaurie M., Furco A. et al. Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: three cases of renal failure, Fanconi syndrome, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2003. Vol.200936 (8). P. 1070–1073.
  66. Kearney B.P., Flaherty J.F., Shah J. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: Clinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. // Clin. Pharmacokinet. 2004. Vol.200943. P. 595–612.
  67. Knudtson E., Para M., Boswell H. et al. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome and renal toxicity with a nevirapine-containing regimen in a pregnant patient with human immunodeficiency virus. // Obstet. Gynecol. 2003. Vol.2009 101. P. 1094–1097.
  68. Kohli H.S., Bhaskaran M.C., Muthukumar T. et al. Treatment-related acute renal failure in the elderly: a hospital-based prospective study. // Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2000. Vol.2009 15(2). P. 212–217.
  69. Kopp J.B., Falloon J., Filie A. et al. Indinavir-associated interstitial nephritis and urothelial inflammation: Clinical and cytologic findings. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2002. Vol.2009 34. P. 1122–1128.
  70. Kopp J.B., Miller K.D., Mican J.A. et al. Crystalluria and urinary tract abnormalities associated with indinavir. // Ann. Intern. Med. 1997. Vol.2009127. P. 119–125.
  71. Koster J. C., Remedi, M. S., Qiu, H. et al. HIV protease inhibitors acutely impair glucose-stimulated insulin release. // Diabetes 2003. Vol.200952. P. 1695–1700.
  72. Krawczyk C. S., Holmberg S. D., Moorman A. C. et al. Factors associated with chronic renal failure in HIV-infected ambulatory patients.// AIDS 2004. Vol.200918. P. 2171–2178.
  73. Krishnan M., Nair R., Haas M. et al. Acute renal failure in an HIV-positive50-year-old man. // Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2000. Vol.200936. P. 1075–1078.
  74. Kumar M.S., Sierka D.R., Damask A.M. et al. Safety and success of kidney transplantation and concomitant immunosuppression in HIV-positive patients. // Kidney Int. 2005. Vol.200967. P. 1622–1629.
  75. Labarga P. Kidney tubular abnormalities in the absence of impaired glomerular function in HIV patients treated with tenofovir. // AIDS 2009. Vol.2009 23(6). P. 689–696.
  76. Leblanc M., Kellum J.A., Gibney R.T. et al. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks. // Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 2005. Vol.200911(6). P. 533–536.
  77. Lin J.H., Chen I.W., Vastag K.J., Ostovic D. pH-Dependent oral absorption of L-735,524, a potent HIV protease inhibitor, in rats and dogs.// Drug Metab. Dispos. 1995. Vol.2009 23. P. 730–735.
  78. Lyseng-Williamson K.A., Reynolds N.A., Plosker G.L. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: A review of its use in the management of HIV infection. // Drugs 2005. Vol.200965. P. 413–432.
  79. Mannel M. Drug interactions with St John’s wort: Mechanisms and clinical implications. // Drug Saf. 2004. Vol.200927. P. 773–797.
  80. Martinez F., Mommeja-Marin H., Estepa-Maurice L. et al. Indinavir crystal deposits associated with tubulointerstitial nephropathy. // Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1998. Vol.2009200913. P. 750–753.
  81. Mocroft A. Chronic renal failure among HIV-1-infected patients.// AIDS 2007. Vol.2009 21(9). P. 1119–1127.
  82. Morris A.A., Baudouin S.V. Snow M.H. Renal tubular acidosis and hypophosphataemia after treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. // AIDS 2001. Vol.2009 15. P. 140–141.
  83. Nadler R.B., Rubenstein J.N., Eggener S.E. et al. The etiology of urolithiasis in HIV infected patients. // J. Urol. 2003. Vol.2009169. P. 475–477.
  84. Nelson M. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of HIV infection in adults: the first 4 years. // AIDS 2007. Vol.200921. P. 1273–1281.
  85. Pacanowski J., Poirier J.M., Petit I. et al. Atazanavir urinary stones in an HIV-infected patient. // AIDS 2006. Vol.200920 (16). P. 2131.
  86. Palacios R. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on blood pressure in HIV-infected patients. A prospective study in a cohort of naive patients. // HIV Med. 2006. Vol.20097. P. 10–15.
  87. Peraldi M. N. Acute renal failure in the course of HIV infection: a single-institution retrospective study of ninety-two patients and sixty renal biopsies. // Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.1999. Vol.200914. P. 1578–1585.
  88. Perazella M.A., Kashgarian M., Cooney E. Indinavir nephropathy in an AIDS patient with renal insufficiency and pyuria. // Clin. Nephrol. 1998. Vol.200950. P. 194–196.
  89. Peyriere H., Reynes J., Rouanet I., et al. Renal tubular dysfunction associated with tenofovir therapy: Report of 7 cases. // J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2004. Vol.200935. P. 269–273.
  90. Piscitelli S.C., Burstein A.H., Chaitt D. et al. Indinavir concentrations and St John’s wort. // Lancet 2000. Vol.2009355. P. 547–548.
  91. Reiter W.J., Schon-Pernerstorfer H., Dorfinger K. et al. Frequency of urolithiasis in individuals seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus treated with indinavir is higher than previously assumed. // J. Urol. 1999. Vol.2009161. P. 1082–1084.
  92. Rho M., Perazella M. A. Nephrotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients. // Curr. Drug Saf. 2007. Vol.20092. P. 147–154.
  93. Rifkin B.S., Perazella M.A. Tenofovir-associated nephrotoxicity: Fanconi syndrome and renal failure. // Am. J. Med. 2004. Vol.2009 117 (4). P. 282–284.
  94. Roe J., Campbell L. J., Ibrahim F. et al. HIV care and the incidence of acute renal failure. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008. Vol.200947. P. 242–249.
  95. Roland M.E. Solid organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients in the potent antiretroviral therapy era. // Top. HIV Med. 2004. Vol.200912. P. 73–76.
  96. Rollot F., Nazal E.M., Chauvelot-Moachon L. et al. Tenofovir-related Fanconi syndrome with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: The role of lopinavir-ritonavir-didanosine. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2003. Vol.200937. P. e174–e176.
  97. Ross M.J., Klotman P.E. Recent progress in HIV-associated nephropathy. // J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2002. Vol.200913. P. 2997–3004.
  98. Ross M.J., Klotman P.E. HIV-associated nephropathy. // AIDS 2004. Vol.200918. P. 1089–1099.
  99. Sarcletti M., Petter A., Romani N. et al. Pyuria in patients treated with indinavir is associated with renal dysfunction. // Clin. Nephrol. 2000. Vol.2009200954. P. 261–270.
  100. Schaaf B., Aries S.P., Kramme E. et al. Acute renal failure associated with tenofovir treatment in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2003. Vol.2009 37 (3). P. e41–43.
  101. Schetz M., Dasta J., Goldstein S., Golper T. Drug-induced acute renal failure. // Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 2005. Vol.200911(6). P. 555–565.
  102. Schrier R.W., Wang W. Acute renal failure and sepsis. // N. Engl. J. Med. 2004. Vol.2009 351(2). P. 159–169.
  103. Schwartz E.J., Szczech L.A., Ross M.J. et al. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and the epidemic of HIV+ end-stage renal disease. // J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2005. Vol.200916. P. 2412–2420.
  104. Seaberg E.C., Munoz A., Lu M. et al. Association between highly active antiretroviral therapy and hypertension in a large cohort of men followed from 1984 to 2003. // AIDS 2005. Vol.200919. P. 953–960.
  105. Seguro A. C. Effects of hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia on zidovudine (AZT) and didanosine (ddI) nephrotoxicity in rats. // Clin.Nephrol. 2003. Vol.200959. P. 267–272.
  106. Smith P.F., DiCenzo R., Morse G.D. Clinical pharmacokinetics of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. // Clin. Pharmacokinet. 2001. Vol.200940. P. 893–905.
  107. Szczech L.A., Edwards L.J., Sanders L.L. et al. Protease inhibitors are associated with a slowed progression of HIV-related renal diseases. // Clin. Nephrol. 2002. Vol.200957. P. 336–341.
  108. Tashima K.T., Horowitz J.D., Rosen S. Indinavir nephropathy [letter]. // N. Engl. J. Med.1997. Vol.20092009336. P. 138–140.
  109. UNAIDS. 2007 AIDS epidemic update. Geneva: Joint United (11): 1380–7 Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO), 2007.
  110. Verhelst D., Monge M., Meynard J.L. et al. Fanconi syndrome and renal failure induced by tenofovir: a first case report. // Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2002. Vol.200940 (6). P. 1331–1333.
  111. Vigano A., Rombola G., Barbiano di Belgioioso G. et al. Subtle occurrence of indinavir-induced acute renal insufficiency [letter]. // AIDS 1998. Vol.2009200912. P. 954–955.
  112. Von Bargen J., Moorman A. Holmberg S. How many pills do patients with HIV infection take? // JAMA 1998. Vol.2009280 (1). P. 29.
  113. Weber L., Campbell H., Gritter N.J. Indinavir-induced nephropathy. // Tenn. Med. 1997. 2009 Vol.2009 90. P. 286–288.
  114. Weinberg J.M. The cellular basis of nephrotoxicity. / In: Schrier RW, Gottschalk CW, editors. Diseases of the Kidney. Boston: Little Brown, 1993. P.1031–1237.
  115. Wyatt C.M. Acute renal failure in hospitalized patients with HIV: risk factors and impact on in-hospital mortality. // AIDS 2006. Vol.200920(4). P. 561–565.
  116. Zager R.A. Pathogenetic mechanisms in nephrotoxic acute renal failure. // Semin. Nephrol. 1997. Vol.200917. P. 3–14.
  117. Zimmermann A.E., Pizzoferrato T., Bedford J. et al. Tenofovir-associated acute and chronic kidney disease: a case of multiple drug interactions. // Clin. Infect. Dis. 2006. Vol.2009 42 (2). P. 283–290.

Другие статьи по теме


Навигация по статьям
Разделы журнала
Наиболее читаемые статьи
Журнал "Нефрология и диализ"