Российское диализное общество

Просмотр статьи

<< Вернуться к списку статей журнала

Том 4 №2 2002 год - Нефрология и диализ

Хроническая трансплантационная нефропатия: механизмы развития и факторы прогрессирования (Обзор литературы, часть 2)


Столяревич Е.С.

Аннотация: Факторы, влияющие на скорость прогрессирования хронической трансплантационной нефропатии (ХТН) Артериальная гипертония как фактор прогрессирования ХТН В литературе последних лет все более утверждается точка зрения о важной роли системной артериальной гипертензии (АГ) в механизме развития и прогрессирования гломерулосклероза [5, 22, 36, 97, 101]. Взаимосвязь между системной АГ и внутриклубочковой гипертонией при поражениях собственных почек не вызывает сомнений. Она объясняется тем, что при длительно существующей АГ за счет истощения компенсаторных механизмов, регулирующих тонус приносящей и уносящей артериол, происходит передача повышенного гидростатического давления на капилляры клубочка [5, 56, 76, 101, 117]. Следствием возрастающего внутриклубочкового давления является дальнейшее ускоренное прогрессирование нефропатии.

Весь текст



Ключевые слова: хроническая трансплантационная нефропатия, механизмы развития, факторы прогрессирования

Список литературы:
  1. Варшавский В.А. Клиническая морфология гломерулопатий: Автореф. дисс. … д-ра мед. наук. М., 1978: 38.
  2. Ильинский И.М., Розенталь Р.Л. Патология почечных аллотрансплантатов. Рига: Зинатне, 1990: 64-65.
  3. Ким И.Г. Отдаленные результаты трансплантации почки и факторы риска хронического отторжения: Автореф. дисс.. канд. мед. наук. М., 1999: 25.
  4. Ратнер М.Я. Оценка почечных функций и классификация их расстройств при заболевании почек. Ренальные дисфункции. Под ред. М.Я. Ратнер, В.В. Серова, Н.А. Томилиной. М.: Медицина, 1977: 32-42.
  5. Серов В.В., Пальцев М.А. Почки и артериальная гипертензия. М.: Медицина, 1993: 254.
  6. Тареева И.Е. Нефрология. М.: Медицина, 2000: 414.
  7. Томилина Н.А. Нефропатия отторжения (диагностика, клинические варианты течения, антикоагулянтно-антиагрегантная терапия): Автореф. дисс.. д-ра мед. наук. М., 1988: 38.
  8. Томилина Н.А. Расстройства функций почечного аллотрансплантата. Ренальные дисфункции. Под ред. М.Я. Ратнер, В.В. Серова, Н.А. Томилиной. М.: Медицина, 1977: 221-250.
  9. Шумаков В.И., Левицкий Э.Р., Порядин Н.Ф. Синдром отторжения при трансплантации почки. М.: Медицина, 1982: 106-107, 190-191.
  10. Шумаков В.И., Мойсюк Я.Г., Томилина Н.А. и др. Трансплантация почки. Трансплантология, руководство. Под ред. акад. В.И. Шумакова. М.: Медицина, 1995: 194-196.
  11. Шумаков В.И., Ильинский И.М., Белецкая Л.В., Малов И.П. и др. Гистологические и иммуноморфологические исследования хронического отторжения трансплантированных почек. Вестник трансплантологии и искусственных органов 2000; 3: 30-34.
  12. Alfrey E.J., Lu A.D., Carter J.T. et al. The dual kidney transplant registry. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 1099.
  13. Almond H.S., Matas A., Gillingham K. et al. Risk factors for chronic rejection in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 1993; 55: 752-757.
  14. Azuma H., Nadeau K., Mackenzie H.S., Brenner B. et al. Nephron mass modulates the hemodynamic cellular and molecular response of the rat renal allograft. Transplantation 1997; 63; 4: 519-528.
  15. Baker R.J., Hernandez-Fuentes M.P., Brookes P.A. et al. Comparison of the direct and indirect pathways of allorecognition in chronic allograft failure. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 449.
  16. Basadonna G.P., Matas A.J. et al. Early versus late acute renal allograft rejection: Impact on chronic rejection. Transplantation 1993; 55: 993-995.
  17. Barrientos A., Potoles J., Herrero J.A. et al. Glomerular hyperfiltration as a nonimmunologic mechanism of progression of chronic renal rejection. Transplantation 1994; 57; 5: 753-755.
  18. Benigni A., Remuzzi G. How renal cytokines and growth factor contribute to renal disease progression. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2001; 37; 1; Suppl. 2: 21-24.
  19. Bhathena D.B. Glomerular size and the association of focal glomerulosclerosis in long-surviving human renal allografts. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1993; 4; 6: 1316.
  20. Bohle A., Makcensen-Haen S., Gise H. The consequence of tubulo-interstitial changes for renal function in glomerulopathies: a morphometric and cytological analysis. Tubulo-interstitial nephropathies: Proceeding of the 4-th Bari seminar in nephrology. Bari. Italy. 1990: 29-36.
  21. Bohle A., Gartner H.V., Laberke H.G., Kruck F. The kidney: structure and function. ed. Shattauer. Stuttgart; New York. 1989.
  22. Bock H.A. Chronic rejection and hypertension: a chicken-and-egg problem. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.: Editional Comments. 1995: 1126-1128.
  23. Bohmig G.A., Exher M., Watschinger B. et al. C4d deposits in renal allografts are associated with inferior graft outcome. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 115.
  24. Brenner B.M., Milford E.L. Nephron underdosing: a programmed cause of chronic renal allograft failure. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1993; 21: 66-72.
  25. Brenner B.M., Mackenzie H.S. Nephron endowment and pathogenesis of chronic renal failure. Late graft loss. ed. Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997: 93-100.
  26. Burke B.A., Chavers B.M., Gilingham K.J. et al. Chronic renal allograft rejection in first 6 month posttransplant. Transplantation 1995; 60: 1413-1417.
  27. Cecka J.M. The UNOS Scientific Renal Transplant Registry. Clin. Transplant. 1999: 1-21.
  28. Colvin R. The renal allograft biopsy. Kidney Int. 1996; 50: 1069-1082.
  29. Cosio F.G., Pelletier R.P., Falkenhain M.E. et al. Impact of acute rejection and early allograft function on renal allograft survival. Transplantation 1997; 63: 1611-1615.
  30. Cosio F.G., Frankel W.L., Pelletier R.P. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in renal allografts with chronic nephropathy: implications for graft survival. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 1999; 34; 4: 731-8.
  31. Cosio F.G., Pelletier R.P., Sedmak D.D. et al. Pathologic classification on chronic allograft nephropathy: pathogenic and prognostic implication. Transplantation 1999; 67; 5: 690-696.
  32. Cosio F.G., Dillon J.J., Falkenhain M.E. et al. Racial difference in renal allograft survival: the role of systemic hypertension. Kidney Int. 1995; 47; 4: 1136-1141.
  33. Curtis J.J. Treatment of hypertension in renal allograft patients: does drug selection make a difference? Kidney Int. 1997; 63: 75-77.
  34. Davenport A., Younie M.E., Parsons J.E.M. et al. Development of cytotoxic antibodies following renal allograft transplantation is associated with reduced graft survival due to chronic vascular rejection. Nephrology dialisis trans. 1994; 9: 1315-1319.
  35. Diamond J.R., Tilney N.L., Frye J. et al. Progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in a rat model of chronic renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 1992; 54; 4: 710-716.
  36. Dirks J.H., Brenner B.M. Mechanisms of injury in progressive renal disease: insights from experimental data: Summary and concluding remarks. Kidney Int. 1994; 45; Suppl. 45: 22-24.
  37. Dische F. Renal pathology. Oxford university press 1995: 216.
  38. Emery V.C., Soderberg-Naucler C. Viral infection and their impact on chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Transplantation 2001; 71; 11: 24-31.
  39. Fellstrom B., Backman U., Kyurek L. et al. Transplantation atherosclerosis: definition and pathogenesis. Late graft loss. ed. Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997: 39-48.
  40. Fellstrom B, Larsson E., Zezina L. Pathophysiology of the progression of renal graft disfunction. Transplant. Proc; 2001; 33: 299-301.
  41. Fine L.G., Debasish B., Norman J.T. Is There a common mechanism for the progression of different tipes of renal diseases other than proteinuria? Toward the unifying theme of chronic hypoxia. Kidney Int. 2000; 57; Suppl. 75: 22-26.
  42. First M.R., Vaidya P.N. et al. Proteinuria following transplantation. Transplantation 1984; Vol. 38: 607-612.
  43. Frei U., Schindler R., Wieters D. et al. Pre-transplant hypertension: a major risk factor for chronic progressive renal allograft dysfunction? Nephrology dialysis trans. 1995; 10: 1206-1211.
  44. Furness L. Histopathology of chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Transplantation 2001; 71; 11; Suppl. 5: S31-S37.
  45. Gilbert R.E., Cooper M.E. The tubulointerstitium in progressive diabetic kidney disease: more than an aftermath of glomerular injury? Kidney Int. 1999; 56: 1627-1637.
  46. Gouldesbrough D.R., Axelsen R.A. Arterial endothelialitis in chronic renal allograft rejection: a histopathological and immunocytochemical study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994; 9; 1: 35-40.
  47. Grimm P.G., Nickerson P., Jeffery J., Rush D.N. Quantitation of fibrosis in 6 month protocol transplant biopsies predict outcome. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1998; 9: 174-182.
  48. Grimm P.G., Nickerson P., Jeffery J. et al. Neointimal and tubulointerstitial infiltration by recipient mesenhymal cells in chronic renal allograft rejection. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001; 345; 2: 93-97.
  49. Habib R., Broyer M. Clinical significance of allograft glomerulopathy. Kidney Int. 1993; 44; Suppl. 43: S95-S98.
  50. Habib R., Zurowska A., Hinglais A. A specific glomerular lesion of the graft - allograft glomerulopathy. Kidney Int. 1993; 44; Suppl. 42: S104-S111.
  51. Halloran P., Melk A., Barth C. Rethinking allograft nephropathy: The concept of accelerated senescence. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1999; 10: 167-181.
  52. Hayry P. Chronic rejection: an update on the mechanism. Transplant. Proc. 1998; 30: 3993-3995.
  53. Hayry P., Myllarniemi M., Ramirez L.C. et al. Immunobiology and pathology of chronic rejection. Transplant. Proc. 1997; 29: 77-78.
  54. Heemann U.V., Kribben A. The role of adhesion molecules in chronic rejection. Late graft loss. ed.Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997: 63-67.
  55. Heemann V.W., Azuma H., Tullius S.G. et al. The contribution of reduced functioning mass to chronic kidney allograft dysfunction in rats. Transplantation 1994; 58; 12: 1317-1322.
  56. Herrera-Acosta J. The role of systemic and glomerular hypertension in progressive glomerular injury. Kidney Int. 1994; 45; Suppl. 45: 6-10.
  57. Hostetter T.H. Chronic transplant rejection. Kidney Int. 1994; 46: 266-279.
  58. Hong J.H., Sumrany N., Delaney V. et al. Causes of Late Renal Allograft Failure in the Cyclosporin Era. Nephron 1992; 62: 272-279.
  59. Ishii Y., Shimizu A., Sawada T. et al. Injury of peritubular capillaries correlates with graft function in chronic renal allograft nephropathy. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 1213-1214.
  60. Isoniemi H., Nurminen H., Tikkanen M.J. et al. Risk Factors Predicting Chronic Rejection of Renal Allografts. Transplantation 1994; 57; 1: 68-72.
  61. Isoniemi H., Taskinen E., Hayry P. Histological chronic allograft damage index accurately predicts chronic renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 1994; 58; 11.
  62. Kahan B.D., Ponticelli C. Principles and Practica of Renal Transplantation.
  63. Kasiske B.L., Kalil R.S.N., Lee H.S. et al. Histopathfinding associated with chronic progressive decline in renal allograft function. Kidney Int. 1991; 40: 514-524.
  64. Kasiske B.L. Clinical correlates to chronic renal allograft rejection. Kidney Int. 1997; 52; Suppl. 63: 71-74.
  65. Kasiske B.L., Heim-Duthoy K.L., Tortorice K.L. The variable nature of chronic declines in renal allograft function. Transplantation 1991; 51; 2: 330-334.
  66. Kim H.C., Suk J., Joo J. et al. Risk factor for chronic rejection in renal allograft recipients. Transplant. Proc. 1996; 28: 1456-1457.
  67. Kim Y.S., Jeong H.J., Kim M.S. Is kidney graft biopsy indicated in recipients with newly developed microscopic hematuria? Clin. Transplant. 1998; 12; 2: 104-108.
  68. Koo D.D.H., Welsh K.J., McLaren A.J. et al. Cadaver versus living donor kidney: impact of donor factors on antigen induction before transplantation. Kidney Int. 1999; 56: 1551-1559.
  69. Kreis N.A., Ponticelli C. Causes of late renal allograft loss: chronic allograft dysfunction, death, and other factors. Transplantation 2001; 71; S. 5; 11: 2-10.
  70. Laine J., Krogerus L., Jalanko H. еt al. Renal allograft histology and correlation with function in children on triple therapy. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1995; 10: 95-102.
  71. Legendre C., Thervet E., Skhiri H. et al. Histologic features of chronic allograft nephropathy revealed by protocol biopsies in kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 1998; 65; 11: 1506-1509.
  72. Lemstrom K., Koskinen P., Hyary P. Molecular mechanisms of chronic renal allograft rejection. Kidney Int. 1995; 52: 2-10.
  73. Lindholm A., Ohlman S. et al. The impact of acute rejection episodes on long-term graft function and outcome in 1347 primary renal transplants treated by 3 cyclosporine regimens. Transplantation 1993; 56: 307-315.
  74. Mackenzie H.S., Azuma H., Rennke H.G. et al. Renal mass as a determinant of late allograft outcome: Insights from experimental studies in rats. Kidney Int. 1995; 48: 538-542.
  75. Mannon R.B., Kopp J.B., Ruiz P. et al. Chronic rejection of mouse kidney allografts. Kidney Int. 1999; 55; 5: 1935-44.
  76. Marcantoni C., Jafar T.H., Oldrizzi L. et al. The role of systemic hypertension in the progression of nondiabetic renal disease. Kidney Int. 2000; 57; Suppl. 75: 214.
  77. Mauiyyedi S., Pelle P.D., Saidman S. et al. Chronic humoral rejection: identification of antibody-mediated chronic renal allograft rejection by C4D deposits in peritubular capillaries. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2001; 12; 3: 574-582.
  78. Massy Z.A., Guijarro C., Kasiske B.L. Clinical predictors of chronic renal allograft rejection. Kidney Int. 1995; 48: 85-88.
  79. Massy Z.A., Guijarro C. et al. Chronic renal allograft rejection: Immunologic and nonimmunologic risk factors. Kidney Int. 1996; 49: 518-524.
  80. Matas A.J. Chronic rejection in renal transplant recipients - risk factor and correlates. Clin. Transplant. 1994; 8: 332-335.
  81. Matas A.J., Gillingham K.J., Sutherland D.E.R. Half-life and risk factors for kidney transplant outcome - importance of death with function. Transplantation 1993; 55: 757-761.
  82. Meier-Kriesche H.U., Ojo A.O., Arndorfer J.A. Recipient age as an independent risk factor for chronic renal allograft failure. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 1113-1114.
  83. Meier-Kriesche H.U., Ojo A.O., Leavey S. et al. Gender differences in the risk for chronic renal allograft failure. Transplantation 2001; 71; 3: 429-32.
  84. Miles A.M.V., Sumrani N., John S. et al. The effect of kidney size on cadaveric renal allograft outcome. Transplantation 1996; 41; 6: 894-897.
  85. Modena F.M., Hostetter T.H., Salahudeen et al. Progression of kidney disease in chronic renal transplant rejection. Transplantation 1999; 52; 2: 239-244.
  86. Modlin C., Goldfarb D., Novick A.C. Hyperfiltration nephropathy as a cause of late graft loss in renal transplantation. World J. Urol. 1996; 14; 4: 256-64.
  87. Monga G., Mazzucco G., Messina M. et al. Intertubular capillary changes in kidney allografts: a morphologic investigation on 61 renal specimens. Mod. Pathol. 1992; 5: 125-130.
  88. Moreso F., Seron D., Anunciada A.J. et al. Recipient body surface area as a predictor of posttransplant renal allograft evolution. Transplantation 1998; 65: 671-676.
  89. Mourad G., Delmas S., Vela C. еt al. Risk factor in chronic renal allograft rejection: a case-control study at a single center. Transplant. Proc. 1996; 28: 2822.
  90. Nahas A.M.E. Mechanisms of experimental and clinical renal scarring // Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology. ed. Davison, Cameron, Grunfeld et al. 1998; 3: 1749-1776.
  91. Nankivell B.J., Kuypers D.R.J., Fenton-Lee C.A. Histological injury and renal transplant outcome: the cumulative damage hypothesis. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 1149-1150.
  92. Neilson E.G. Tubulointerstitial injury and its role in progressive renal damage: summary and concluding remarks. Kidney Int. 1994; 45; Suppl. 45: S116-S117.
  93. Neumayer H.H., Huls S., Schreiber M. Kidney from pediatric donor: risk versus benefit. Clin. Nephrol. 1994; 41; 2: 94-100.
  94. Nicholson M.L., McCulloch T.A., Harper S.J. Early measurement of interstitial fibrosis predicts long-term renal function and graft survival in renal transplantation. Br. J. Surg. 1996; 83; 8: 1082-5.
  95. Nicholson M.L., Bailey E., Williams S. Computerized histomorphometric assessment of protocol renal transplant biopsy speciments for surrogate markers of chronic rejection. Transplantation 1999; 68: 236-241.
  96. Oh C.K, Jeong H.J., Kim Y.S. et al. Clinical validity of Banff grading of chronic rejection in renal transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 1996; 28; 1441-1442.
  97. Opelz G., Wujciak T., Ritz E. Association of chronic kidney graft failure with recipient blood pressure. Kidney Int. 1998; 53: 217-222.
  98. Opelz G. for the Collaborative Transplant Study. Chronic graft loss in kidney and heart transplant recipients. Late graft loss. ed. Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997: 3-12.
  99. Pallardo L.M., Sanchez J., Puig N. et al. Chronic rejection in 500 kidney transplant patients treated with cyclosporine: incidense and risk factor. Transplant. Proc. 1995; 27: 2215-2216.
  100. Paul L.C. Chronic allograft nephropathy: an update. Kidney Int. 1999; 56; 3: 783-93.
  101. Paul L.C., Benediktsson H. Posttransplant hypertension and chronic renal allograft failure. Kidney Int. 1995; 48: 34-37.
  102. Paul L.C., Muralidharan et al. Immunological mechanism of chronic rejection. Late graft loss. ed. Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997: 295-296.
  103. Paul L.C. Chronic renal transplant loss. Kidney Int. 1995; 47: 1491-1499.
  104. Paul L.C., Sijpkens Y.W.J. Early biomarkers for late graft loss. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 1149-1150.
  105. Paul L.C. Immunologic risk factor for chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Transplantation 2001; 71; 11; Suppl. 5: 17-24.
  106. Peddi V.R., Dean D.E., Hariharan S. Proteinuria following renal transplantation: correlation with histopathology and outcome. Transplant. Proc. 1997; 29: 101-103.
  107. Puyoo O., Rostaing L., Benard E. et al. Risk factor of chronic rejection after renal transplantation: retrospective study of 201 patients. Transplant. Proc. 1998; 30: 2804-2806.
  108. Piazza A., Poggi E., Borelli L. et al. Relevance of posttransplant HLA class I and class II antibodies on renal graft outcome. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 478-480.
  109. Poli F., Scalamogna M., Mascaretti M. Genomic HLA-DR compatibility in long surviving transplants. Transplantation 1993; 56; 1: 97-100.
  110. Ponticelli C. Progression of renal damage in chronic rejection. Kidney Int. 2000; 57; Suppl. 75: 62-70.
  111. Peeters J., Roels L., Vanrenterghem Y.F.C. Chronic renal allograft failure: Clinical overview. Kidney Int. 1995; 48; Suppl. 52: 97-101.
  112. Ritz E. Hypertonie und Niere. Arzneim.Forsch. Drug Res. 47. 11. 1997: 1297-1301.
  113. Ritz E., Schomig M., Wagner J. Counteracting progression of renal disease. A look into the future. Kidney Int. 2000; 57; Suppl. 75: 71-76.
  114. Roodnat J.J., Mulder P.G.H. Proteinuria and death risk in renal transplant population. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 1170-1171.
  115. Rosenkranz A.R., Mayer G. Proteinuria in the transplanted patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2000; 15: 1290-1292.
  116. Sanchez-Fructuoso A.I., Prats D., Marques M. et al. Does renal mass exert an independent effect on the determinants of antigen-dependent injury? Transplantation 2001; 71; 3: 381-6.
  117. Sanders C.E., Curtis J.J. Role of hypertension in renal allograft dysfunction. Kidney Int. 1995; 48; Suppl. 52: 43-47.
  118. Sayegh M. Why do we reject a graft? Role of indirect allorecognition in graft rejection. Kidney Int. 1999; 56: 1967-1979.
  119. Seron D., Moreso F., Ramon J.M. et al. Protocol renal allograft biopsies and the design of clinical trials aimed to prevent or treat chronic allograft nephropathy. Transplantation 2000; 69; 9: 1849-55.
  120. Seron D., Moreso F., Bover J. et al. Evaluation of biopsy changes in early diagnosis of chronic transplant nephropathy. Late graft loss. ed. Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London; 1997: 25-30.
  121. Sibley K. Histopathology of chronic rejection. Late graft loss. ed. Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997: 13-23.
  122. Sijpkens Y.W.J., Bruijn J.A., Paul L.C. Chronic allograft nephropathy categorised in chronic interstitial and vascular rejection. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 1153.
  123. Soles K., Axelsen R.A., Benediktsson H. et al. International standartisation of criteria for the histologic diagnosis of renal allograft rejection: The Banff working classification of kidney transplant pathology. Kidney Int. 1993; 44: 411-422.
  124. Soles K. Graft atherosclerosis and chronic rejection in the kidney. Transplant. Proc. 1997; 29: 2541.
  125. Soles K. Renal allograft histopathology. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1995: 44-50.
  126. Striker L.J. Nephron reduction in man - lessons from the Os mouse. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1998; 13; 543-545.
  127. Supon P., Constantino D., Hao P. et al. Prevalence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies during episodes of renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 2001; 71; 4: 577-80.
  128. Terasaki P.I., Koyama H., Cecka J.M. et al. The hyperfiltration hypotesis in human renal transplantation. Transplantation 1994; 57; 10: 1450-1454.
  129. Thorogood J., Van Houwelingen J.C., Van Rood J.J. et al. Factors Contributing to Long-term Kidney Graft Survival in Eurotransplantat. Transplantation 1992; 54; 1: 152-158.
  130. Tullius S.G., Heemann U., Hancock W.W. Long-term kidney isografts develop functional and morphological changes that mimic those of chronic allograft rejection. Annals of Surgery. 1994; 220; 4: 425-35.
  131. Tullius S.G., Hancock W.W., Heemann U., Azuma H., Tilney N.L. Reversibility of chronic renal allograft rejection - Critical effect of time after transplantation suggests both host immune dependent and independent phases of progressive injury. Transplantation 1994; 58; 1: 93-99.
  132. Vanrenterghem Y.F.C. Role of acute rejection in chronic rejection. Transplant. Proc. 1998; 30: 1240-1211.
  133. Vanrenterghem Y.F.C., Peeters J. for the Leuven Collaborative Group for Transplantation. The impact of acute rejection in the long-term outcome after renal transplantation. Late graft loss. ed. Touraine J.L., Traeger J., Betuel H. et al. Dordrecht/Boston/London. 1997: 85-89.
  134. Vaskonen T., Mervaala E., Nevala R. et al. Development of chronic allograft rejection and arterial hypertension in Brown Norway rats after renal transplantation. Blood Press. 2000; 9; 2-3: 162-8.
  135. Vathsala A., Verani R., Schoenberg L. et al. Proteinuria in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1990; 49; 1: 35-41.
  136. Vella J.P., Spadafora-Ferreira M., Murphy B. et al. Indirrect allorecognition of major histocompability complex allopeptides in human renal transplant recipients with chronic graft dysfunction. Transplantation 1997; 64; 6: 795-800.
  137. Wada J., Shikata K., Makino H. Novel approaches to unravel the genesis of glomerulosclerosis by new methodologies in molecular genetics. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 1999; 14: 2551-2553.
  138. Walls J. Role of proteinuria in progressive renal disease. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2001; 37; Suppl. 2: 13-19.
  139. Weber M., Candinas D. Immunologic maching between donor and recipient for solid organ transplantation. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation 1997; 62: 151-156.
  140. Worthington J.E., Martin S., Dyer P.A. An association between posttransplant antibody production and renal transplant rejection. Transplant. Proc. 2001; 33: 475-476.
  141. Zeier M., Opelz G., Schwenger V. Effect of donor and recipient gender on longterm outcome in kidney transplantation. XXXVII congress of the ERA EDTA. Sept 17-20 Nice. France.
  142. Ziai F., Nagano H., Kusaka M. et al. Renal allograft protection with losartan in Fisher®Lewis rats: hemodinamic, macrophages and cytokines. Kidney Int. 2000; 57; 2618-2625.

Другие статьи по теме


Навигация по статьям
Разделы журнала
Наиболее читаемые статьи
Журнал "Нефрология и диализ"