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Том 16 №4 2014 год - Нефрология и диализ

Клеточные технологии в трансплантации почки


Момыналиев К.Т. Огай В.Б. Хорошун Е.В. Бабенко Н.Н. Каабак М.М.

Аннотация: В настоящее время трансплантация почки прочно утвердилась в качестве основного метода заместительной терапии при хронической почечной недостаточности в терминальной стадии. Благодаря современным иммунодепрессантам, резко повысилась краткосрочная выживаемость пациентов и трансплантата. Однако долгосрочная выживаемость аллотрансплантата почки не улучшается такими же темпами. Хроническая нефропатия аллотрансплантата остается наиболее частой причиной потери трансплантата, тогда как сердечно-сосудистые заболевания остаются ведущей причиной смертности пациентов после трансплантации. Для улучшения результатов трансплантации важно продолжать разработку новых стратегий профилактики острых и хронических отторжений, в том числе за счет уменьшения необходимости пожизненной иммуносупрессии и повышения донор-специфической толерантности. В данном обзоре рассматриваются различные стратегии использования клеточных технологий в применении к пересадке почки. Использование мезенхимальных стволовых клеток (МСК) среди всех клеточных технологий при трансплантации почки является перспективной терапевтической стратегией для управления возникновения и прогрессирования болезни «трансплантат против хозяина». Предварительные данные свидетельствуют о том, что использование МСК может обеспечить потенциальные выгоды в трансплантации почки за счет уменьшения дозы иммуносупрессивных препаратов, которое необходимо для поддержания долгосрочного выживания и функции трансплантата после операции.

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Ключевые слова: мезенхимальные стволовые клетки, регуляторные Т-клетки, дендритные клетки, иммунологическая толерантность, трансплантация почки, mesenchymal stem cells, regulatory T-cells, dendritic cells, immunological tolerance, renal transplantation

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