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Том 19 №2 2017 год - Нефрология и диализ

Экспериментальные модели острого почечного повреждения


Комиссаров К.С. Пилотович В.С. Юркевич М.Ю. Дмитриева М.В. Зафранская М.М.

Аннотация: Для изучения патогенетических механизмов острого почечного повреждения (ОПП) различной этиологии и оценки эффективности нефропротективных мероприятий было разработано значительное количество экспериментальных работ на животных, которые воссоздают клиническое течение различных форм почечной недостаточности. Детальное описание имеющихся моделей ОПП у животных позволит понять специфику проведения конкретного эксперимента и правильно интерпретировать полученные результаты. Введение глицерина индуцирует повреждение почек, которое возникает при рабдомиолизе. Использование в эксперименте лекарственных средств таких, как гентамицин, цисплатин, ифосфамид, диклофенак, стимулирует развитие ОПП, которое наблюдается при назначении соответствующего препарата в медицинской практике. Модель контраст-индуцированной ОПП имитирует у животных почечную недостаточность, возникающую во время ангиографических исследований с использованием радиоконтрастных веществ. Для создания модели ОПП, связанной с действием вредных факторов, распространенных в окружающей среде, используют соли урана, хрома. Почечные дисфункции, возникающие при воздействии загрязненной воды, симулируются введением нитрилотриацетата и 1,2-дихлорвинил-L-цистеина. Нарушение функции почек при генерализованной инфекции изучается на модели сепсис-индуцированной ОПП. Различные экспериментальные модели ишемически-реперфузионного (И/Р) ОПП симулируют гемодинамические нарушения, происходящие при снижение почечного кровотока. В данной работе представлен детальный протокол экспериментальной модели И/Р ОПП у крыс вследствие билатерального клипирования почечных ножек с описанием технических вопросов, возможных вариантов модели, их особенностей а также решение сложностей, которые могут встретиться во время проведения эксперимента.

Весь текст

Ключевые слова: острое почечное повреждение, лабораторные животные, эксперимент, глицерин, гентамицин, цисплатин, диклофенак, сепсис, уран, ишемически-реперфузионное повреждение, acute kidney injury, laboratory animals, experiment, glycerol, gentamicin, cisplatin, diclofenac, sepsis, uranium, ischemia-reperfusion injury

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