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Том 21 №1 2019 год - Нефрология и диализ

Заболевания почек: бремя болезни и доступность медицинской помощи


Дейдра Крю Амину Белло Гамаль Саади

DOI: 10.28996/2618-9801-2019-1-9-18

Аннотация: Заболевания почек - глобальная проблема общественного здравоохранения, затрагивающая более 750 млн. человек во всем мире [1]. Распространенность заболеваний почек, а также их диагностика и лечение в разных странах существенно отличаются. Значение и последствия заболеваний почек наиболее изучены в развитых странах, но в последнее время появляется все больше данных, свидетельствующих об аналогичной и даже более высокой распространенности заболеваний почек и в развивающихся странах [2]. Во многих ситуациях частота заболеваний почек и обеспечение медицинской помощью определяются социально-экономическими, культурными и политическими факторами, что даже в развитых странах приводит к существенным различиям наносимого болезнью ущерба [3]. Эти различия наблюдаются на разных этапах оказания помощи при заболеваниях почек: от профилактических мероприятий, направленных на предотвращение развития острого повреждения почек (ОПП) и хронической болезни почек (ХБП), до скрининга на наличие болезни почек у лиц с высоким риском заболевания и доступа к специализированной медицинской помощи и проведению заместительной почечной терапии (ЗПТ) для лечения почечной недостаточности. Всемирный день почки 2019 дает возможность повысить осведомленность о заболеваниях почек, а также осветить несоответствия между причиняемым ими ущербом и потенциальными возможностями их профилактики и лечения. В публикуемой передовой статье мы хотим заострить внимание на этих несоответствиях и подчеркиваем роль общественной политики и организационных структур в их устранении. Мы намечаем пути улучшения понимания этих различий, определяем основные подходы к достижению этого понимания, а также возможности оптимизации усилий для обеспечения равенства в вопросах поддержания здоровья почек во всем мире.

Весь текст

Ключевые слова: острое повреждение почек, терминальная почечная недостаточность, охрана здоровья населения мира, социальные детерминанты здоровья, acute kidney injury, end stage renal disease, global health, health equity, social determinants of health

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