Российское диализное общество

Просмотр статьи

<< Вернуться к списку статей журнала

Том 22 №4 2020 год - Нефрология и диализ

Иммуносупрессивная терапия при стероид-зависимом нефротическом синдроме у детей. Обзор литературы


Агаронян А.Г. Вашурина Т.В. Комаров О.В. Зробок О.А. Ананьин П.В. Тимофеева А.Г. Фисенко А.П. Цыгин А.Н.

DOI: 10.28996/2618-9801-2020-4-474-489

Аннотация: Нефротический синдром является серьезным заболеванием почек, приводящим к жизнеугрожающим осложнениям и часто требующим повторных госпитализаций и длительного лечения. Терапия нефротического синдрома в дебюте направлена на индукцию ремиссии и включает прием преднизолона. Большинство пациентов чувствительны к начальной стероидной терапии, однако более половины имеют в последующем рецидивы, приобретая часто-рецидивирующий или стероид-зависимый характер болезни, что требует назначения кортикостероид-сберегающих агентов. Несмотря на многочисленные исследования эффективности иммуносупрессивных препаратов, до настоящего времени отсутствует консенсус по оптимальной стратегии выбора первой линии. Потенциальный риск канцерогенности и инфертильности привели к значительному сокращению показаний к применению алкилирующих агентов. Из-за недостаточной эффективности и малой доступности крайне редко используется неспецифический иммуностимулятор левамизол. Ингибиторы кальцинейрина показали хорошую эффективность в виде поддержания стойкой ремиссии болезни у большинства больных. Вместе с тем, актуальными проблемами стали формирование циклоспориновой зависимости, развитие нефротоксичности, присоединение артериальной гипертензии и формирование косметических побочных эффектов. В последние годы все чаще применяется микофенолата мофетил, эффективность которого продемонстрирована во многих многоцентровых исследованиях. Как правило, препарат назначается при доказанном недостаточном эффекте или токсичности циклоспорина А, тогда как его роль как иммуносупрессивного препарата первой линии недостаточно изучена. Отсутствие стероид-сберегающего действия перечисленных препаратов и критическая степень хронической стероидной интоксикации диктует необходимость использования курса биологической терапии ритуксимабом после тщательного исключения противопоказаний. Внедрение глюкокортикоидной терапии в свое время сыграло колоссальную роль в повышении выживаемости детей с нефротическим синдромом. После того, как достижение ремиссии у большинства больных перестало быть проблемой, новым вызовом явилось формирование стероидной зависимости, необходимость повторных курсов и/или длительной поддерживающей терапии преднизолоном. Для преодоления этой зависимости на протяжении полувека применяются и изучаются различные иммуносупрессивные препараты, которым посвящен данный обзор.

Весь текст

Ключевые слова: стероидзависимый нефротический синдром, глюкокортикостероиды, иммуносупрессивная терапия, микофенолата мофетил, циклоспорин А, левомизол, циклофосфамид, ритуксимаб, steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, glucocorticosteroids, immunosuppressive therapy, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine A, levamisole, cyclophosphamide, rituximab

Список литературы:
  1. KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Glomerulonephritis. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Glomerulonephritis Work Group. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012;(2):139-274.
  2. Sultana M., Majumder B., Rahman M. et al. Dipstick Method versus Spot Urinary Protein Creatinine Ratio for Evaluation of Massive Proteinuria in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome. Mymensingh Med J. 2018 Apr;27(2):369-374. PMID: 29769504
  3. Noone D., Iijima K., Parekh R et al. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children. Lancet. 2018 Jul 7; 392(10141):61-74. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30536-1.
  4. Chanchlani R., Parekh R. Ethnic Differences in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome. Front Pediatr. 2016. doi: 10.3389/fped.2016.00039
  5. Hussain N., Zello J., Vasilevska-Ritovska J., Banh T. et al. The rationale and design of Insight into Nephrotic Syndrome: Investigating Genes, Health and Therapeutics (INSIGHT): a prospective cohort study of childhood nephrotic syndrome. BMC Nephrology. 2013;14:25. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2369-14-25.
  6. Franke I., Aydin M., Ganschow R. et al. The incidence of the nephrotic syndrome in childhood in Germany. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2018;22(1):126-32. doi:10.1007/s10157-017-1433-6.
  7. Kikunaga K., Ishikurа K, Terano C. et al. Incidence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in East Asian children: a nationwide survey in Japan. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 21(4), September 2016, doi: 10.1007/s10157-016-1319-z
  8. Dossier C., Lapidus N., Bayer F. et al. Epidemiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children: endemic or epidemic? Pediatr Nephrol (2016) 31:2299-2308. doi:10.1007/s00467-016-3509-z
  9. Настаушева Т., Швырев А., Кулакова Е. и соавт. Результаты эпидемиологического исследования нефротического синдрома у детей по данным регионального регистра больных. Нефрология и диализ, том 12 №2 (2010 г)
  10. Reynolds B.C., Oswald R.J.A. Diagnostic and Management Challenges in Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome. 2019 Dec 17;10:157-167. doi: 10.2147/PHMT.S193684. PMID: 31908565 PMCID: PMC6930517 DOI: 10.2147/PHMT.S193684
  11. Kari J, Montini G, Bockenhauer D, et al. Clinico-pathological correlations of congenital and infantile nephrotic syndrome over twenty years. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014;29(11):2173-2180. doi:10.1007/s00467-014-2856-x
  12. Sharief S.N, Hefni N.A, Alzahrani W.A, Nazer I.I. et al. Genetics of congenital and infantile nephrotic syndrome. 2019 Apr;15(2):198-203. doi: 10.1007/s12519-018-00224-0. Epub 2019 Feb 5. PMID: 30721404
  13. Shalhoub R. Pathogenesis of lipoid nephrosis: a disorder of T-cell function. Lancet. 1974, Sep 7;2(7880):556-60, Doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(74)91880-7
  14. Cameron J.: The nephrotic syndrome and its complications. Am J Kidney Dis 10: 157-171, 1987. doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6386(87)80170-1
  15. Maas R., Deegens J., Wetzels J. Permeability factors in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: Historical perspectives and lessons for the future. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014 Dec;29(12):2207-16. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfu355.
  16. Maruyama K., Tomizawa S., Shimabukuro N. et al. Effect of Supernatants Derived from T Lymphocyte Culture in Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome on Rat Kidney Capillaries. Nephron 1989; 51:73-76 Doi:10.1159/000185246
  17. Zhang S., Audard V., Fan Q. et al. Immunopathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Contrib Nephrol. 2011;169:94-106. doi:10.1159/000313947.
  18. Midan D., Elhelbawy N, El-Din Habib M, Ahmedy I. et al. Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in Children With Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2017 Nov;11(6):414-421. PMID: 29190601
  19. Shalaby S., Al-Edressi H., El-Tarhouny S., El-Bab M et al. Type 1/type 2 cytokine serum levels and role of interleukin-18 in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Arab J Nephrol Transplant. 2013 May;6(2):83-8. PMID: 23656401
  20. Farid F., Baky A., Fawzy M., Mostafa R. Study of Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Nephrotic Children. EC Paediatrics 8.1 (2019): 30-37.
  21. Kanai T, Shiraishi H, Yamagata T, Ito T, Odaka J, Saito T, et al. Elevated serum interleukin-7 level in idiopathic steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:906-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2011.03380.x.
  22. Rong C., Wenyan L., Yuanyuan W., Jian G. Advances and researches in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome biomarkers. Received: December 01, 2016 | Published: April 25, 2017. 2017;5(1):184-187. DOI: 10.15406/mojwh.2017.05.00110
  23. Al-Asadi A., Abdulmohimin N., Shatha H. Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) Levels in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome and Its Correlation with Biochemical Parameters. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7(09):3464-3470 • September 2018. DOI: 10.20546/ijcmas.2018.709.429
  24. Iijima K., Sako M., Nozu K. et al. Rituximab for childhood-onset, complicated, frequent relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 Oct 4;384(9950):1273-81. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60541-9.
  25. Ravani P., Rossi R., Bonanni A. et al. Rituximab in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter, open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Sep;26(9):2259-66. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2014080799.
  26. Zhao Z., Liao G., Li Y. et al. The efficacy and safety of rituximab in treating childhood refractory nephrotic syndrome: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8219.
  27. Niaudet P. Long-term outcome of children with steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(10):1547-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.05950809
  28. Alshami A., Roshan A., Catapang M. et al. Indications for kidney biopsy in idiopathic childhood nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2017 Oct;32(10):1897-1905. doi: 10.1007/s00467-017-3687-3.
  29. Avner E., Harmon W., Niaudet P., Yoshikawa N. et al. Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome in Children: Clinical Aspects. Pediatric Nephrology, 7th Ed., Berlin, Springer, 2016, p. 839-882
  30. Ferrara G., Petrillo M-G., Giani T. et al. Clinical Use and Molecular Action of Corticosteroids in the Pediatric Age. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 21;20(2). pii: E444. doi: 10.3390/ijms20020444.
  31. Cain D., Cidlowski J. Immune regulation by glucocorticoids. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 Apr;17(4):233-247. Epub 2017 Feb 13. doi: 10.1038/nri.2017.1
  32. Клинические рекомендации союза педиатров России «Нефротический синдром у детей», 2016
  33. Liping T., Shaojun L., Haiping Y., Qing Z. et al. Efficacy and acceptability of immunosuppressive agents for pediatric frequently-relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (2019) 98:22(e15927).Received 2 April 2019/Accepted: 10 May 2019 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015927
  34. Yadav M, Sinha A, Khandelwal P, Hari P, Bagga A. Efficacy of low-dose daily versus alternate-day prednisolone in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome: an open-label randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Nephrol. 2018 Sep 7. 6 (1):63-9.
  35. Hodson E., Hahn D., Craig J. Corticosteroids for the initial episode of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2015;30:1043-46. Doi:10.1007/s00467-015-3106-6
  36. Настаушева Т.Л., Жданова О.А., Батищева Г.А., Звягина Т.Г. Безопасность длительной глюкокортикостероидной терапии у детей с нефротическим синдромом. Педиатрическая фармакология. 2017; 14 (3): 165-172. DOI: 10.15690/pf.v14i3.1740
  37. Aljebab F., Choonara I., Conroy S. Systematic review of the toxicity of long-course oral corticosteroids in children. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0170259. doi: 10.1371/journal. pone.0170259.
  38. Yasir M., Sonthalia S. Corticosteroid Adverse Effects. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL), 05 Oct 2018. PMID: 30285357
  39. Cammas B., Harambat J., Bertholet-Thomas A., Bouissou F. et al. Long-term effects of cyclophosphamide therapy in steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant (2011) 26: 178-184 doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq405
  40. Chiu J., McLaine N., Drummond N. A controlled prospective study of cyclophosphamide in relapsing, corticosteroid-responsive, minimal-lesion nephrotic syndrome in childhood. The Journal of Pediatrics Volume 82, Issue 4, April 1973, Pages 607-613. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(73)80585-2
  41. Prospective, controlled trial of cyclophosphamide therapy in children with nephrotic syndrome. Report of the International study of Kidney Disease in Children. Lancet 1974;2(7878):423-427.
  42. Berkane M, Adarmouch L, Amine M et al. Cyclophosphamide in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: Outcome and outlook. Nephrol Ther. 2018 Apr;14(2):85-90. doi: 10.1016/j.nephro.2017.03.004. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
  43. Azib S., Macher M., Kwon T.t al. Cyclophosphamide in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol (2011) 26:927-932. DOI 10.1007/s00467-011-1830-0
  44. Cammas B., Harambat J., Bertholet-Thomas Aet al. Long-term effects of cyclophosphamide therapy in steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant (2011) 26: 178-184, doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq405
  45. Pravitsitthikul N, Willis N, Hodson E, Craig J. Non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 29;(10):CD002290. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002290.pub4.
  46. Larkins N, Liu I, Willis N, Craig J et al. Non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications for steroidsensitive nephrotic syndrome in children (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002290. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002290.pub5
  47. Cavallasca J, Costa C, Maliandi Mdel R, Contini L et al. Severe infections in patients with autoimmune diseases treated with cyclophosphamide. Reumatol Clin. 2015 Jul-Aug;11(4):221-3.
  48. Michelle N. Nephrotic Syndrome: Updates and Approaches to Treatment. Curr Treat Options Peds (2016) 2:94-103 DOI 10.1007/s40746-016-0044-x
  49. Jefferson A.J. Complications of Immunosuppression in Glomerular Disease. CJASN August 2018, 13 (8) 1264-1275; DOI: https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01920218
  50. Latta, K., von Schnakenburg C., Ehrich J. A meta-analysis of cytotoxic treatment for frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome in children (2001). Pediatric Nephrology, 16(3), 271-282.doi:10.1007/s004670000523
  51. Ghobadi E., Moloudizagari M., asghari M., Abdollahi M. The mechanisms of cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity and the protective agents. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, Volume 13, 2017 - Issue 5. https://doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2017.1277205
  52. Trautmann A., Vivarelli A., Samuel S., Gipson D. et al. IPNA clinical practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.Pediatric Nephrology. 2020:35, p.1529-1561. doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04519-1
  53. Ishikura K, Ikeda M, Hattori S, Yoshikawa N et al. Effective and safe treatment with cyclosporine in nephrotic children: a prospective, randomized multicenter trial. Kidney International 2008;73(10):1167-73. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.2008.24
  54. Iijima K., Sako M., Oba M., Ito S. et al. Cyclosporine C2 Monitoring for the Treatment of Frequently Relapsing Nephrotic Syndrome in Children: A Multicenter Randomized Phase II Trial. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Feb 7; 9(2): 271-278. doi: 10.2215/CJN.13071212. PMCID: PMC3913253. PMID: 24262503
  55. Aramburu J., Heitman J., Crabtree G. Calcineurin: a central controller of signalling in eukaryotes. EMBO Rep. 2004; 5:343-8. Doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400133
  56. Khemani S, Moorani K. Cyclosporine versus Cyclophosphamide in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome. J Liaquat Uni Med Health Sci. 2016;15(02)
  57. Dorresteijn E., Holthe K., Levtchenko E. et al. Mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclosporine for remission maintenance in nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric Nephrology, 23(11), 2013-2020.doi:10.1007/s00467-008-0899-6
  58. Gellermann J., Weber L., Pape L. et al. Mycophenolate Mofetil versus Cyclosporin A in Children with Frequently Relapsing Nephrotic Syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Oct; 24(10): 1689-1697. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2012121200
  59. Rahman A, Muinuddin G, Rahman H, Roy R. et al. Mycophenolate Mofetil versus Cyclosporine in Children with Frequent Relapse Nephrotic Syndrome. J Ped. Nephrology 2018;6(1) http://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/jpn
  60. Wang J., Mao J., Chen J. et al. Evaluation of mycophenolate mofetil or tacrolimus in children with steroid sensitive but frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Nephrology, 21(1), 21-27. doi:10.1111/nep.12537
  61. Lim T., Kim S. Efficacy and Safety of Mycophenolate Mofetil in Children with Steroid Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome. M.D. 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3339/chikd.2015.19.2.105
  62. Fujinaga S., Sakuraya K., Yamada А., Urushihara Y et al. Positive role of rituximab in switching from cyclosporine to mycophenolate mofetil for children with high-dose steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. 2014, Pediatr Nephrol DOI 10.1007/s00467-014-3034-x
  63. Wang W., Xia Y., Mao J., Chen Y. Treatment of tacrolimus or cyclosporine A in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol (2012) 27:2073-2079 DOI 10.1007/s00467-012-2228-3
  64. Kim J., Patnaik N, Chorny N, Frank R et al. Second-Line Immunosuppressive Treatment of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience. Nephron Extra 2014; 4:8-17. https://doi.org/10.1159/000357355
  65. Sinha M, MacLeod R, Rigby E, Clark AG. Treatment of severe steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) in children with tacrolimus. Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:1848-1854 (2006)
  66. Ishikura K, Yoshikawa N, Nakazato H, Sasaki S et al. Japanese Study Group of Renal Disease in Children (2012) Two years follow-up of a prospective clinical trial of cyclosporine for frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome in children. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 7:1576-1583
  67. Kengne-Wafo S., Massella l., Diomedi-Camassei F et al. Risk Factors for Cyclosporin A Nephrotoxicity in Children with Steroid-Dependant Nephrotic Syndrome. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 4: 1409-1416, 2009. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01520209
  68. Hamasaki Y., Komaki F., Ishikura K., Hamada R. Nephrotoxicity in children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome receiving long-term cyclosporine treatment. Accepted: 3 March 2017. Pediatr Nephrol. DOI 10.1007/s00467-017-3641-4
  69. Jayaweera A., Abeyagunawardena A. Effectiveness and safety of cyclosporin A therapy in steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome in childhood. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 41(4), pp.171-175. (2012) DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/sljch.v41i4.4978
  70. Ishikura K, Yoshikawa N, Nakazato H. Morbidity in children with frequently relapsing nephrosis: 10-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Nephrol (2015) 30:459-468 DOI 10.1007/s00467-014-2955-8
  71. Fujinaga, S., Ohtomo, Y., Umino, Takemoto M. et al. A prospective study on the use of mycophenolate mofetil in children with cyclosporine-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric Nephrology, 22(1), 71-76.doi:10.1007/s00467-006-0294-0
  72. Ricardo L., Pradob R., Carvalhob Y., Peraltaa F et al. Cyclosporine A - Induced gingival overgrowth and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in experimental periodontitis. 2019, DOI:org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2018.10.004
  73. Souza K, Andrade P, Cassia F, Castro M. Cyclosporine-induced childhood generalized hypertrichosis. An Bras Dermatol. 2020 May-Jun;95(3):402-403. doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2019.08.027. Epub 2020 Mar 19.
  74. Zhang J, Sun Z, Zhu Z, Yang J. Pharmacokinetics of Mycophenolate Mofetil and Development of Limited Sampling Strategy in Early Kidney Transplant Recipients. Front. Pharmacol., 13 August 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00908
  75. Sagcal-Gironella A., Fukuda T., Wiers K., Cox S. et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mycophenolic acid and their relation to response to therapy of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Feb;40(4):307-13. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2010.05.007
  76. Gellermann J., Querfeld U. Frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome: treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. Pediatric Nephrology. 2004; 19(1):101-4. doi.org/10.1007/s00467-003-1300-4
  77. Ulinski T., Dubourg L, Saïd M. Switch from cyclosporine A to mycophenolate mofetil in nephrotic children. Pediatric Nephrology. April 2005, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 482-485. DOI 10.1007/s00467-004-1778-4
  78. Novak I., Frank R., Vento S., Vergara M. et al. Efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric patients with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Sep;20(9):1265-8. Epub 2005 Jun 8. Doi: 10.1007/s00467-005-1957-y
  79. Hogg R., Fitzgibbons L., Bruick J., Bunke M. et al. Mycophenolate Mofetil in Children with Frequently Relapsing Nephrotic Syndrome: A Report from the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group. CJASN November 2006, 1 (6) 1173-1178; Doi:https:// doi.org/10.2215/CJN.00550206
  80. Afzal K., Bagga A., Menon S. et al. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol (2007) 22:2059-2065 DOI 10.1007/s00467-007-0617-9
  81. Baudouin V., Alberti C., Lapeyraque A-L., Bensman А. et al. Mycophenolate mofetil for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a phase II Bayesian trial. Pediatric Nephrology, March 2012. doi: 10.1007/s00467-011-2006-7.
  82. Banerjee S., Pahari A., Sengupta J., Patnaik S. Outcome of severe steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome treated with mycophenolate mofetil. Pediatr Nephrol 2013;28:93-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-012-2278-6.
  83. Jellouli M., Fitouhi S., Abidi K., Hammi Y. Le mycophenolate mofétil dans le traitement du syndrome néphrotique corticodépendant de l’enfant. La tunisie Medicale - 2016; Vol. 94 (n 03): 221-225. PMID: 27575507
  84. Hettiarachchi H., Raja M., Karunadasa U., Thalgahagoda R. Efficacy and side effects of mycophenolate mofetil therapy in children with steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome in a tertiary paediatric nephrology centre in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2018; 48(1): 53-58
  85. Nandi M., Mandal S., Samanta M., Majhi A. et al. Efficacy of Mycophenolate Mofetil as a Remission Maintaining Agent in Idiopathic Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome. Indian J Nephrol. 2019 Jan-Feb;29(1):34-41. doi: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_330_17.
  86. Dehoux L., Hogan J., Dossier C., Fila M. et al. Mycophenolate mofetil in steroid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016 Nov;31(11):2095-101. doi: 10.1007/s00467-016-3400-y.
  87. Fujinaga S., Hirano D., Nishino T. Long-term outcome of Japanese children with complicated minimal change nephrotic syndrome treated with mycophenolate mofetil after cyclosporine. Pediatric Nephrology. November 2019, Volume 34, Issue 11, pp 2417-2421. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04339-y
  88. Sinha A., Puraswani M., Kalaivani M. Efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil versus levamisole in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome: an open-label randomized controlled trial. Kidney International. doi:10.1016/j.kint.2018.08.039
  89. Mühlig A., Lee J., Kemper M., Kronbichler A. Levamisole in Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Clinical Efficacy and Pathophysiological Aspects. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 860; doi:10.3390/jcm8060860
  90. Szeto C, Gillespie K, Mathieson P (2000) LEV induces interleukin18 and shifts type 1/type 2 cytokine balance. Immunology 100:217-224
  91. Tanphaichitr P., Tanphaichitr D., Sureeratanan J., Chatasingh S. Treatment of nephrotic syndrome with levamisole. J. Pediatr. 1980, 96, 490-493
  92. British Association for Paediatric Nephrology. Levamisole for corticosteroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome in childhood. Lancet 1991, 337, 1555-1557
  93. Kemper M., Neuhaus T. Levamisole in relapsing steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome: where do we stand? Kidney International (2018) 93, 310-313; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.09.024
  94. Gruppen M.; Bouts A.; Jansen-van der Weide M.; Merkus M. et al. A randomized clinical trial indicates that levamisole increases the time to relapse in children with steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int. 2018, 93, 510-518
  95. Kemper M.; Amon O.; Timmermann K.; Altrogge H et al. The treatment with levamisole of frequently recurring steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 1998, 123, 239-243
  96. Madani A, Isfahani S, Rahimzadeh N, Fereshtehnejad S et al. (2010) Effect of Levamisole in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Iran J Kidney Dis 4:292-296
  97. Elmas A., Tabel Y., Elmas N. Short- and long-term efficacy of levamisole in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Int Urol Nephrol (2013) 45:1047-1055. DOI 10.1007/s11255-012-0241-x
  98. Ekambaram S, Mahalingam V, Nageswaran P, Udani A et al. (2014) Efficacy of levamisole in children with frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Indian Pediatr 51(5):371-373
  99. Samuel E., Krishnamurthy S., Bhanudeep S. et al. Levamisole in Frequently-relapsing and Steroid-dependent Nephrotic Syndrome. Accepted: June 14, 2017. Published online: July 11, 2017. PII:S097475591600077
  100. Basu, B.; Babu, B.; Mahapatra, T. Long-term efficacy and safety of common steroid-sparing agents in idiopathic nephrotic children. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. 2017, 21, 143-151
  101. Cascio M, Jen K. Cocaine/levamisole-associated autoimmune syndrome: a disease of neutrophil-mediated autoimmunity. Curr Opin Hematol. 2018 Jan;25(1):29-36. doi: 10.1097/MOH.0000000000000393.
  102. Kuźma-Mroczkowska E, Skrzypczyk P, Pańczyk-Tomaszewska M. Levamisole therapy in children with frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a single-center experience. Cent Eur J Immunol. 2016; 41(3):243-247. DOI: 10.5114/ceji.2016.63122
  103. Mühlig A., Lee J., Kemper M., Kronbichler A et al. Levamisole in Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Clinical Efficacy and Pathophysiological Aspects. J Clin Med. 2019 Jun; 8(6): 860. doi: 10.3390/jcm8060860
  104. Benz K., Dötsch J., Rascher W., Stachel D. Change of the course of steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome after rituximab therapy. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004 Jul;19(7):794-7. Epub 2004 Apr 8.
  105. Nozu K., Iijima K., Fujisawa M., Nakagawa A. et al. Rituximab treatment for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) induces complete remission of recurrent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005 Nov;20(11):1660-3. Epub 2005 Aug 16.
  106. Roccatello D., Sciascia S., Di Simone D., Solfietti L. et al. New insights into immune mechanisms underlying response to Rituximab in patients with membranous nephropathy: a prospective study and a review of the literature. Autoimmunity Rev. (2016) 15:529-38. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2016.02.014
  107. Colucci M., Carsetti R., Cascioli S., Casiraghi F. et al. B cell reconstitution after rituximab treatment in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. (2016) 27:1811-22. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2015050523
  108. Fornoni A., Sageshima J., Wei C., Merscher-Gomez S. et al. Rituximab targets podocytes in recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Sci Transl Med. 2011;3:85ra46. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002231.
  109. Ahn Y, Kim S, Han K, Choi H et al. Efficacy and safety of rituximab in childhood-onset, difficult-to-treat nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter open-label trial in Korea. Medicine. (2018) 97:e13157. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000013157
  110. Basu B., Sander A., Roy B., Preussler S. et al. Efficacy of rituximab vs tacrolimus in pediatric corticosteroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics. (2018) 172:757-64. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1323
  111. Вашурина Т.В. Зробок О.И. Комарова О.В. и соавт. Применение ритуксимаба при стероид-зависимом нефротическом синдроме у детей. Нефрология и диализ • Т. 18, No 1 2016
  112. Horebeek I., Knops N., Dyck M., Levtchenko E. et al. (2017) Rituximab in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: experience of a tertiary center and review of the literature, Acta Clinica Belgica, 72:3, 147-155, DOI: 10.1080/17843286.2016.1208955
  113. Takahashi T., Okamoto T., Sato Y., Yamazaki T et al. (2019), Periodically repeated rituximab administrations in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome: 2-year multicenter observational study, Pediatric nephrology, 34, 1, 87-96, DOI: 10.1007/s00467-018- 772 4063-7.
  114. Sellier-Leclerc A.L., Baudouin V., Kwon T., Macher M.A. et al. (2012) Rituximab in steroid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood-follow-up after CD19 recovery, Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation: official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association, DOI: 1083-9, 10.1093/ndt/gfr405
  115. Sellier-Leclerc A-L., Macher A-L., Loirat C., Guérin V. et al. Rituximab efficiency in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2010 Jun;25(6):1109-15. doi: 10.1007/s00467-010-1465-6. Epub 2010 Mar 18.
  116. Hogan J, Dossier C, Kwon T, Macher MA et al. Effect of different rituximab regimens on B cell depletion and time to relapse in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric Nephrol. (2019) 34:253-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-018-4052-x
  117. Fujinaga S., Nishino T., Umeda C., Tomii Y. et al. (2019) Long-term outcomes after early treatment with rituximab for Japanese children with cyclosporine- and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, Pediatric nephrology, 34, 2, 353-357, DOI: 776 10.1007/s00467-018-4145-6.
  118. Kamei K, Ogura M, Sato M, et al. Risk factors for relapse and long-term outcome in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome treated with rituximab. Pediatric Nephrology. 2016;31(1):89-95.
  119. Kallash M., Smoyer W., Mahan J. (2019) Rituximab in the Management of Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome. Front. Pediatr. 7:178. doi:10.3389/fped.2019.00178
  120. Kim S., Lim T., Song J. et al. Effects of Rituximab Including Long-term Maintenance Therapy in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome in a Single Center of Korea. Child Kidney Dis 2018; 22(1): 1-6. Published online: April 27, 2018. doi.org/10.3339/jkspn.2018.22.1.1
  121. Sinha A, Bhatia D, Gulati A, et al. Efficacy and safety of rituximab in children with difficult-to-treat nephrotic syndrome. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2014;30(1):96-106.
  122. Delbet J, Leclerc G, Ulinski T. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and rituximab: may we predict circulating B lymphocytes recovery? Pediatr Nephrol. (2018) 34:529-32. doi: 10.1007/s00467-018-4139-4
  123. Basu B., Sander A., Preussler S., Sinha M. et al. (2019) IPN11036-82 Long-term efficacy of rituximab & MMF maintenance - therapy in childhood SDNS. Abstracts of the 18th Congress of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association, Venice (Italy), October 2019. Pediatr Nephrol 34:1821-2260. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04325-4
  124. Fujinaga S., Someya T., Watanabe T., Ito A. Cyclosporine versus mycophenolate mofetil for maintenance of remission of steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome after a single infusion of rituximab. Eur J Pediatr (2013) 172:513-518 DOI 10.1007/s00431-012-1913-3
  125. Horinouchi T, Sako M, Nakanishi K, Ishikura K et al. (2018) Study protocol: mycophenolate mofetil as maintenance therapy after rituximab treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicenter double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (JSKDC07). BMC nephrol 19(1):302
  126. Basu B. Compare Efficacy and Safety of Repeated Courses of Rituximab to That of Maintenance Mycophenolate Mofetil Following Single Course of Rituximab Among Children With Steroid Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome (RITURNS II, Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: NCT03899103).
  127. Ito S., Kamei K., Ogura M., Udagawa T. et al. Survey of rituximab treatment for childhood-onset refractory nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr. Nephrol. 2013. 28: 257-264. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-012-2319-1
  128. Kimata T, Hasui M, Kino J, Kitao T et al. Novel use of rituximab for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome in children. Am J Nephrol. 2013; 38(6):483-8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000356439
  129. Kim J., Park E., Hyun H., Cho M et al. (2017) Long-term repeated rituximab treatment for childhood steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, Kidney research and clinical practice, 36, 3, 257-263. doi: 10.23876/j.krcp.2017.36.3.257
  130. Maxted A, Dalrymple R, Chisholm D, McColl J et al. Low-dose rituximab is no less effective for nephrotic syndrome measured by 12-month outcome. Pediatric Nephrol. (2018) 34:855-63. doi: 10.1007/s00467-018-4172-3
  131. Hahn D, Koh Y, Farquhar J. Efficacy of two versus four doses of rituximab for childhood nephrotic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transpl. (2018) 33 (suppl_1):i306. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfy104.FP773
  132. Chaudhuri A, Kambham N, Sutherland S, Grimm P et al. Rituximab treatment for recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in a pediatric patient after renal transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type. Pediatr Transpl. (2012) 16:E183-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01519.x
  133. Niu X-L, Hao S, Wang P, Zhang W et al. Single dose of RTX in children with steroid-dependent minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Biomed Rep. 2016;5: 237-42. doi: 10.3892/br.2016.711
  134. Fujinaga S, Hirano D, Nishizaki N, Kamei K et al. Single infusion of RTX for persistent steroid-dependent minimal-change nephrotic syndrome after long-term cyclosporine. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25: 539-44.
  135. Kemper M, Gellermann J, Habbig S, Krmar R et al. Long-term follow-up after RTX for steroid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27: 1910-5.
  136. Prytuła A., Iijima K., Kamei K., Geary D. et al. (2010) Rituximab in refractory nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 25(3):461-468
  137. Deschênes G, Vivarelli M, Peruzzi L (2017) Variability of diagnostic criteria and treatment of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome across European countries. Eur J Pediatr 176(5):647-654
  138. Chan E, Webb H, Yu E, Ghiggeri G et al. Both the rituximab dose and maintenance immunosuppression in steroid-dependent/ frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome have important effects on outcomes, Kidney International (2020), doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2019.09.033
  139. Hogan J, Dossier C, Kwon T, Macher MA et al. Effect of different rituximab regimens on B cell depletion and time to relapse in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric Nephrol. (2019) 34:253-9. doi: 10.1007/s00467-018-4052-x
  140. Ruggenenti P, Ruggiero B, Cravedi P, et al. Rituximab in steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:850-63.
  141. Bonanni A., Calatroni M., D'alessandro M., Signa S. et al. (2018) Adverse events linked with the use of chimeric and humanized anti-CD20 antibodies in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Br J Clin Pharmacol 84(6):1238-1249
  142. Kamei K., Ogura M., Sato M., Ito S. et al. (2018) Infusion reactions associated with rituximab treatment for childhood-onset complicated nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 33(6):1013-1018
  143. Nakamura M., Kanda S., Yoshioka Y., Takahashi C. et al. Rituximab-induced serum sickness in a 6-year-old boy with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. CEN Case Rep. 2020 May; 9(2): 173-176. Published online 2020 Jan 22. doi: 10.1007/s13730-020-00449-x. PMCID: PMC7148389. PMID: 31970629
  144. Tsutsumi Y, Kanamori H, Mori A, et al. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus with rituximab. Expert opinion on drug safety. 2005;4(3):599-608.
  145. Chaumais M-C, Garnier A, Chalard F, et al. Fatal pulmonary fibrosis after rituximab administration. Pediatric nephrology. 2009;24(9):1753-1755.
  146. Boren EJ, Cheema GS, Naguwa SM, et al. The emergence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in rheumatic diseases. Journal of autoimmunity. 2008;30(1-2):90-98.
  147. Velter C, Pagès C, Schneider P, et al. Four cases of rituximab-associated melanoma. Melanoma research. 2014;24(4):401-403.
  148. Levin A., Otani I., Lax T., Hochberg E. et al. (2017) Reactions to rituximab in an outpatient infusion center: a 5-year review. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 5:107-113
  149. Fujinaga S., Nishino Т., Endo S., Umeda C. et al. Unfavorable impact of anti-rituximab antibodies on clinical outcomes in children with complicated steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric Nephrology, /Accepted: 27 May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04629-w
  150. Kamei K, Takahashi M, Fuyama M, et al. Rituximab-associated agranulocytosis in children with refractory idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: case series and review of literature. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2014;30(1):91-96.
  151. Fujinaga S, Sakuraya K. Single infusion of low-dose ofatumumab in a child with complicated nephrotic syndrome with anti-rituximab antibodies. Pediatr Nephrol. 2018;33:527-528. doi: 10.1007/s00467-017-3866-2.
  152. Vivarelli M, Colucci M, Bonanni A, Verzani M et al. (2017) Ofatumumab in two pediatric nephrotic syndrome patients allergic to rituximab. Pediatr Nephrol 32:181-184
  153. Basu B. Ofatumumab for rituximab-resistant nephrotic syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014 Mar 27; 370(13):1268-70. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1308488.
  154. Wang C, Liverman R, Garro R, George R et al. (2017) Ofatumumab for the treatment of childhood nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 32:835-841
  155. Bonanni A, Rossi R, Murtas C, Ghiggeri GM (2015) Low-dose ofatumumab for rituximab-resistant nephrotic syndrome. BMJ Case Rep 2015
  156. Ravani P, Bonanni A, Ghiggeri G. Randomised controlled trial comparing ofatumumab to rituximab in children with steroid-dependent and calcineurin inhibitor-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: study protocol. BMJ Open. 2017 Mar 17;7(3):e013319. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013319
  157. Garin E.H., Reiser J., Cara-Fuentes G. Case series: CTLA4-IgG1 therapy in minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30:469-477.
  158. Isom R., Shoor S., Higgins J., Cara-Fuentes G. et al. Abatacept in Steroid-Dependent Minimal Change Disease and CD80-uria (2019); Kidney Int Rep (2019) 4, 1349-1353; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.05.1155
  159. Yu CC, Fornoni A, Weins A, et al. Abatacept in B7-1-positive proteinuric kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2416-2423.

Другие статьи по теме


Навигация по статьям
Разделы журнала
Наиболее читаемые статьи
Журнал "Нефрология и диализ"