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Том 10 №3,4 2008 год - Нефрология и диализ

Нутритивный статус у больных с хронической почечной недостаточностью (Обзор литературы)


Шутов Е.В.

Аннотация: Количество больных с терминальной стадией хронической почечной недостаточности (ТХПН) в мире прогрессивно увеличивается. Так, за последние 5 лет, число больных, находящихся на заместительной почечной терапии (ЗПТ), увеличилось более чем на 25%, и на данный момент насчитывает более 2 миллионов человек. При этом наибольшее количество больных, получающих ЗПТ, отмечено в Японии: 2230 пациентов на 1 млн жителей, и в США: 1650 больных на 1 млн. жителей. В то же время, наибольший рост числа пациентов, находящихся на ЗПТ зафиксирован в развивающихся странах (в том числе в России) - свыше 50% за 5 лет. Одной из важнейших проблем у этой категории больных является недостаточность питания, которая в значительной степени определяет их заболеваемость и летальность [45]. Необходимо отметить, что нарушения нутриционного статуса встречаются у 20-50% больных в додиализной стадии ХПН [13, 80] и еще чаще у больных на диализе: 10-70% [84].

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Ключевые слова: хроническая почечная недостаточность, нутритивный статус, белково-энергетическая недостаточность, индекс массы тела

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