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Том 20 №2 2018 год - Нефрология и диализ

Роль почек в поддержании кальциевого и магниевого гомеостаза и при его нарушениях (Часть I)


Зверев Я.Ф. Брюханов В.М. Рыкунова А.Я.

DOI: 10.28996/2618-9801-2018-2-150-169

Аннотация: Обзор посвящен проблеме кальциевого и магниевого гомеостаза и его регуляции в организме человека. С учетом последних достижений молекулярной биологии рассматривается процесс пассивного и активного переноса Ca2+ и Mg2+ в различных органах, сложные процессы регуляции их кишечной абсорбции, костной минерализации, передвижения в различных отделах почки. Обсуждается роль клаудинов в обеспечении транспорта двухвалентных катионов в толстом восходящем отделе петли Генле. Рассматриваются особенности топологи клаудинов, обусловливающие функционирование плотных межклеточных контактов в канальцах почек и их значение для процесса парацеллюлярной реабсорбции Ca2+ и Mg2+. Описывается роль каналов семейства TRP в реабсорбции Ca2+ и Mg2+ в дистальных извитых канальцах. Подчеркивается особая роль каналов TRPV5 и TRPV6 в активном трансцеллюлярном переносе этих катионов, что имеет важное значение в регуляции кальциевого и магниевого гомеостаза. Приводятся современные взгляды на топологию и функциональное значение кальций-чувствительных рецепторов, локализованных в паращитовидных железах и нефроне, в регуляции внеклеточного уровня двухвалентных катионов. Отмечается появление агонистов и антагонистов кальций-чувствительных рецепторов и их потенциальная роль в коррекции нарушений кальциевого обмена. Обсуждаются вопросы регуляции почечного транспорта Ca2+ и Mg2+.

Весь текст

Ключевые слова: гомеостаз кальция и магния, почечный транспорт, клаудины, каналы семейства TRP, кальций-чувствительный рецептор, calcium and magnesium homeostasis, renal transport, claudine, TRP family channels, calcium-sensitive receptor

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