Российское диализное общество

Просмотр статьи

<< Вернуться к списку статей журнала

Том 8 №1 2006 год - Нефрология и диализ

Ревматоидный артрит как ведущая причина развития вторичного аа-амилоидоза (обзор литературы)


Саркисова И.А.

Аннотация: Трудно назвать какое-либо другое заболевание, кроме амилоидоза, в представлениях о котором в последнее время произошли бы такие существенные изменения. Это связано в первую очередь с установленной гетерогенностью белкового состава амилоидных фибрилл, что позволило выделить разные типы амилоида и на этом основании внести уточнения в классификацию амилоидоза и определить дифференцированные подходы к лечению. Благодаря большому вкладу в изучение проблемы амилоидоза специалистов различных направлений - не только интернистов, но и морфологов, биохимиков, генетиков - оказалось возможным понять механизмы развития амилоидоза, расширить круг методов диагностики и мониторирования заболевания. Новые принципы терапии определили необходимость пересмотра критериев выявления отдельных типов амилоидоза, поскольку ранняя диагностика во многом определяет успех лечения.

Весь текст



Ключевые слова: вторичный амилоидоз, ревматоидный артрит, сывороточный амилоидный протеин А (SAA), хроническая почечная недостаточность

Список литературы:
  1. Варшавский В.А., Проскурнева Е.П. Значение и методы морфологической диагностики амилоидоза в современной медицине. Практическая нефрология 1998; 6: 24-26.
  2. Виноградова О.М. Первичный и генетические варианты амилоидоза. М.: Медицина 1980: 224.
  3. Власов В.В. Эффективность диагностических исследований. М.: Медицина 1988: 256.
  4. Иванова М.М., Каратеев Д.Е., Акимова Т.Ф. и др. Клинические варианты течения ревматоидного артрита и выбор метода медикаментозной терапии. Клин. ревмат. 1995; 4: 25-29.
  5. Кац Я.А., Митрофанов В.А. Ревматоидный артрит. М.: ВУНМЦ МЗ РФ 1999: 80.
  6. Козловская Л.В. Амилоидоз. Терапевтический архив 1998; 6: 62-70.
  7. Козловская Л.В., Варшавский В.А., Чегаева Т.В., Проскурнева Е.П., Рамеев В.В. Амилоидоз: современный взгляд на проблему. Практическая нефрология 1998; 2: 16-23.
  8. Кочубей Л.Н., Виноградова О.М., Серов В.В., Васильева Н.А. Прогноз и выживаемость больных вторичным амилоидозом (анализ 146 случаев). Тер. архив 1993; 6: 48-54.
  9. Муравьев Ю.В., Удельнова И.А. Патология легких, вызываемая метотрексатом у больных ревматоидным артритом. Клиническая медицина 2001; 7: 11-16.
  10. Мухин Н.А. Амилоидоз почек: Вопросы клиники и патогенеза: Автореферат диссертации доктора медицинских наук. М.: 1981.
  11. Мухин Н.А. Клинические проблемы амилоидоза почек. Клин. мед. 1983; 10: 12-17.
  12. Назаров П.Г. Реактанты острой фазы воспаления. СПб.: Наука 2001: 423.
  13. Насонова В.А., Астапенко М.Г. Клиническая ревматология. М.: Медицина 1989: 592.
  14. Насонова В.А. Справочник по ревматологии. М.: Медицина 1995: 272.
  15. Реброва О.Ю. Статистический анализ медицинских данных. М.: Медиа Сфера 2003: 312.
  16. Сигидин Я.А., Гусева Н.Г., Иванова М.М. Диффузные болезни соединительной ткани. М.: Медицина 1994: 544.
  17. Сигидин Я.А., Лукина Г.В. Базисная (патогенетическая) терапия ревматоидного артрита. М.: 2000: 100.
  18. Цыбулько С.В. Клинико-иммунные аспекты поражения почек при ревматоидном артрите: Автореферат диссертации кандидата медицинских наук. Ярославль: 2000.
  19. Чичасова Н.В., Насонова М.Б., Степанец О.В., Насонов Е.Л. Современные подходы к оценке активности ревматоидного артрита. Терапевтический архив 2002; 5: 57-60.
  20. Шишкин А.Н. Амилоидоз. Врачебные Ведомости 2001; 4: 33-41.
  21. Шишкин А.Н., Янченко Д.Е., Козлов В.В. Прогностические критерии и выживаемость у больных с вторичным амилоидозом почек. Нефрология 2000; 4: 15-21.
  22. Aho K., Koskenvuo M., Tuominen J., Kaprio J. Occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis in a nationwide series of twins. Journal of Rheumatology 1986; 13: 899-902.
  23. Amos R.S., Constable T.J., Croscson R.A. Rheumatoid Arthritis: relation of serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rates to radiographic changes. Br Med J 1977; 1: 95-197.
  24. Anders R.F., Price M.A., Wilkey I.S. Husby G. et al. Amyloid fibril protein AA in Papua New Guinean amyloidosis. Clin Exp Immunol 1976; 24: 49-53.
  25. Arend W.P., Malyak M., Smith M.F.Jr. et al. Binding of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist by soluble IL-1 receptors and levels of soluble IL-1 receptors in synovial fluids. J Immunol 1994; 153: 4766-4774.
  26. Arnett F.C., Edworthy S., Block D.A. et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 315-324.
  27. Baba S., Masago S.A., Takahashi T., Sugimura H. et al. A novel allelic variant of serum amyloid A, SAA1: genomic evidence, evolution, frequency, and implication as a risk factor for reactive systemic AA-amyloidosis. Hum Mol Gener 1995; 4: 1083-1087.
  28. Badolato R., Wang J.M. et al. Serum amyloid A is a chemoattractant: induction of migration, adhesion and tissue infiltration of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1994; 180: 203-209.
  29. Baer A.N., Dessypris E.N., Goldwasser E. et al. Blunted erythropoietin response to anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Haematol 1987; 66: 559-564.
  30. Bathon J.M., Martin R.W., Fleischmann R.M. et al. A comparison of etanercept and methotrexate in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 18: 344-350.
  31. Betts J.C., Edbrooke M.R., Thakker R.V., Woo P. The human acute phase serum amyloid A gene family: structure, evolution and expression in hepatoma cells. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 1991; 34: 471-482.
  32. Bladen H., Nylen M., Glenner G. The ultrastructure of human amyloid as revealed by the negative staining techniques. J Ultrastr Res 1966; 14: 449-459.
  33. Boers M., Croonen A.M., Dijkmans B.A.C., Breedveld F.C. et al. Renal findings in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical aspects of 132 necropsies. Ann Rheum Dis 1987; 46: 658-63.
  34. Bohle A., Wehrmann M., Eissele R. et al. The long-term prognosis of AA and AL renal amyloidosis and the pathogenesis of chronic renal failure in renal amyloidosis. Pathology, Research and Practice 1993; 189: 316-331.
  35. Brooks P., Hochberg M. Outcome measures and classification criteria for the rheumatic diseases. A compilation of data from OMERACT (Outcome Measures for Arthritis Clinical Trials), ILAR (International League of Associations for Rheumatology), regional leagues and other groups. Rheumatology 2001; 40: 896-906.
  36. Buxbaum J. The amyloidosis. In Klippel J.H., Dieppe P.A. (eds) Rheumatology; second edition. London: Mosby 1998: 8.27.1-8.27.10.
  37. Calkins E., Cohen A. Diagnosis of amyloidosis. Bull Rheum Dis 1960; 10: 215-218.
  38. Callahan L.F. Social epidemiology and rheumatic disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2003; 15 (2): 110-115.
  39. Chambers R.E., Hutton C.W., Dieppe P.A., Whicher J.T. Comparative study of C reactive protein and serum amyloid A in experimental inflammation. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1991; 50: 677-679.
  40. Chevrel G., Jenvrin C., McGregor B., Miossec P. Renal type AA amyloidosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study showing improved survival on treatment with pulse cyclophosphamide. Rheumatology 2001; 40: 821-825.
  41. Choy E.H.S., Panayi G.S. Cytokine Pathways and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344: 907-916.
  42. Chu C.Q., Field M., Feldmann M., Maini R.N. Localization of tumor necrosis factor alpha in synovial tissues and at the cartilage-pannus junction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 1125-1132.
  43. Cohen A.S. Proteins of the systemic amyloidosis. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 1994; 6: 55-67.
  44. Cohen S., Hurd E., Cush J. et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with anakinra, a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, in combination with methotrexate: results of a twenty-four-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 614-624.
  45. Cope A.P., Aderka D., Doherry M. et al. Increased levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in the sera and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 1160-1169.
  46. Cunnane G. Amyloid precursors and amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Bailliere’s Clinical Rheumatology 1999; 13: 615-628.
  47. Cunnane G., Grehan S., Geoghegan S. et al. Serum amyloid A in the assessment of early inflammatory arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology 2000; 27: 58-63.
  48. Davison A.M. The United Kingdom Medical Research Council’s Glomerulonephritis Registry. Contr Nephrol 1985; 48: 24-35.
  49. Dayer J.M., Beutler B., Cerami A. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor stimulates collagenase and prostaglandin E2 production by human synovial cells and dermal fibroblasts. J Exper Med 1985; 162: 2163-2168.
  50. De Beer F.C., Mallya R.K., Fagan E.A. et al. Serum amyloid A protein concentration in inflammatory diseases and its relationship to the incidence of reactive systemic amyloidosis. Lancet 1982; 2: 231-234.
  51. Edmonds J. ILAR Bulletin 1994; 2: 5-6.
  52. Ekelund L. Radiologic findings in renal amyloidosis. American Journal of Roentgenology 1977; 129: 851-853.
  53. Elkayam O., Hawkins P.N., Lachmann H., Yaron M., Caspi D. Rapid and complete resolution of proteinuria due to renal amyloidosis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46 (10): 2571-2573.
  54. Falk H., Maury C., Teppo A., Wegelius O. Correlation of persistently high serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein concentrations with rapid progression of secondary amyloidosis. Brit Med J 1983; 286: 1391-1393.
  55. Falk R., Skinner M. The systemic amyloidosis: an overview. Advances in internal medicine 2000; Chapter 4.
  56. Falk R.H., Comenzo R.L., Skinner M. The systemic amyloidosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 1997; 25: 898-909.
  57. Fifth Joint WHO/ILAR Task Force Meeting on Rheumatic Diseases. ILAR Bulletin 1994; 2: 2-4.
  58. Fuks A., Zucker-Franklin D. Impaired Kupffer cell function precedes development of secondary amyloidosis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1985; 161: 1013-1028.
  59. Gause A. Progress in the treatment of rheumatic disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 13-16.
  60. Gertz M.A., Kyle R.A. Secondary systemic amyloidosis: response and survival in 64 patients. Medicine 1991; 70: 246-256.
  61. Gillmore J.D., Hawkins P.N. Аmyloidosis and the respiratory tract. Thorax 1999; 54: 444-451.
  62. Gillmore J.D., Lovat L.B., Persey M.R., Pepys M.B., Hawkins P.N. Amyloid load and clinical outcome in AA amyloidosis in relation to circulating concentration of serum amyloid A protein. Lancet 2001; 358: 24-29.
  63. Gonnerman W.A., Kandel R., Cathcart E.S. Amyloid enhancing factor is produced by rats and amyloid-resistant CE/J mice. Lab Invest 1996; 74: 259-264.
  64. Gordon P., West J., Jones H., Gibson T. A 10-year prospective followup of patients with rheumatoid arthritis 1986-96. J Rheumatol 2001; 28 (11): 2409-2415.
  65. Grateau G. Amyloidosis physiopathology. Joint Bone Spine 2000; 67: 164-170.
  66. Gravallese E.M., Darling J.M., Ladd A.L., Katz J.N., Glimcher L.H. In situ hybridization studies of stromelysin and collagenase messenger RNA expression in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 1076-1084.
  67. Hachulla E., Saile R., Parra H.J. et al. Serum amyloid A concentrations in giant cell arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica: a useful test in the management of the disease. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 1991; 9: 157-163.
  68. Hartmann A., Eide T.C., Fauchald P. et al. Serum amyloid A protein is a clinically useful indicator of acute renal allograft rejection. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 1997; 12: 161-166.
  69. Hawkins P.N., Lavender J.P., Pepys M.B. Evaluation of systemic amyloidosis by scintigraphy with 123I-labeled serum amyloid P component. The New England Journal of Medicine 1990; 323: 508-513.
  70. Hawkins P.N., Vigushin D.M., Pepys M.B. Diagnosis and monitoring of amyloidosis. Baillière’s Clinical Rheumatology 1994; 8: 321-328.
  71. Hazenberg B., Limburg P., Bijzet J., van Rijswik M. A quantitative method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue of patients with arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1999; 58: 96-102.
  72. Hazenberg B.P., van Rijswijk M.N. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of AA amyloidosis. Baillière’s Clinical Rheumatology 1994; 8: 661-690.
  73. Helin H.J., Korpela M.M., Mustonen J.T., Pasternack A.L. Renal biopsy findings and clinicopathologic correlations in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1995; 38: 242-247.
  74. Hirschfield G.M., Hawkins P.N. Amyloidosis: new strategies for treatment. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 2003; 35: 1608-1613.
  75. Husby G. Amyloidosis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 1992; 22: 67-82.
  76. Husebekk A., Skogen B., Husby G., Marhaug G. Transformation of amyloid precursor SAA to protein AA and incorporation in amyloid fibrils in vivo. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 1985; 21: 283-287.
  77. Joosten L.A., Helsen M.M., van de Loo F.A., van den Berg W.B. Anticytokine treatment of established type II collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1mice. A comparative study using anty-TNF alpha, anti-IL-1 alpha/beta, and IL-1Ra. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 797-809.
  78. Joss N., McLaughlin K., Simpson K., Boulton-Jones L.M. Presentation, survival and prognostic markers in AA amyloidosis. Q J Med 2000; 93: 535-542.
  79. Keystone E.C. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis//Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 2001: 27.
  80. Kisilevsky R., Gruys E., Shirahama T. Doe’s amyloid enhancing factor (AEF) exists? Is AEF a single biological entity? Amyloid Int J Exp Clin Invest 1995; 2: 128-133.
  81. Kisilevsky R., Subrahmanyan L. Serum amyloid amyloid A changes high-density lipoprotein’s cellular affinity. A clue to serum amyloid A’s principal function. Laboratory Investigation 1992; 66: 778-785.
  82. Kisilevsky R., Young I.D. Pathogenesis of amyloidosis. Baillière’s Clinical Rheumatology 1994; 8: 613-626.
  83. Koseki Y., Terai C., Moriguchi M., Uesato M., Kamatani N. A prospective study of renal disease in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 327-331.
  84. Kyle R.A., Greipp P.R. Amyloidosis (AL). Clinical and lab features of 224 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 1983; 58: 665-683.
  85. Lavie G., Zucker-Franklin D., Franklin E.C. Elastase-type proteases on the surface of human blood monocytes: possible role in amyloid formation. Journal of Immunology 1980; 125: 175-180.
  86. Lee D.M., Weinblatt M.E. Rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 2001; 358: 903-911.
  87. Lee J.G., Wilson J.A.P., Gottfried M.R. Gastrointestinal manifestation of amyloidosis. Southern Medical Journal 1994; 87: 243-247.
  88. Liepnieks J.J., Kluve-Beckerman B., Benson M.D. Characterization of amyloid A protein in human secondary amyloidosis: the predominant deposition of serum amyloid A1. Biochim Biophys Acta 1995; 1270: 81-86.
  89. Lipsky P., St. Clair W., Furst D. et al. 54-week clinical and radiological results from the Attract trial. A phase III study of infliximab (Remicade) in patients with active RA despite methotrexate. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 401.
  90. Lipsky P.E., van der Heijde D., Clair E.W., Furst D.E., Breedveld F.C. et al. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 343: 1594-1602.
  91. Liuzzo G., Biasucci L.M., Gallimore J.R. et al. The prognostic value of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein in severe unstable angina. The New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 331: 417-424.
  92. Maini R.N., Breedveld F.C., Kalden J.R. et al. Therapeutic efficacy of multiple intravenous infusions of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody combined with low-dose weekly methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 1552.
  93. Maini R.N., Taylor P.C., Paleolog E. et al. Anti-tumor necrosis factor specific antibody (infliximab) treatment provides insights into the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1999; 1: 156.
  94. Malle E., De Beer F.C. Human serum amyloid A (SAA) protein: a prominent acute phase reactant for clinical practice. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 1996; 26: 427-435.
  95. Malle E., Steinmetz A., Raynes J.G. Serum amyloid A (SAA): an acute phase protein and apolipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 1993; 102: 131-146.
  96. Marhaug G., Harklau L., Olsen B. et al. Serum amyloid A protein in acute myocardial infarction. Acta Medica Scandinavica 1986; 220: 203-306.
  97. Marrel-Pelletier J., McCollumn R., Fujimoto N., Obata K. et al. Excess of metalloproteases over tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease may contribute to cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Lab Invest 1994; 70: 807-815.
  98. Maury C.P.J. Comparative study of serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein in disease. Clinical Science 1985; 68: 233-238.
  99. McCachren S.S., Haynes B.F., Niedel J.E. Localization of collagenase mRNA in rheumatoid arthritis synovium by in situ hybridization histochemistry. J Clin Immunol 1990; 10: 19-27.
  100. McQueen F.M., Stewart N., Crabbe J. et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist in early rheumatoid arthritis reveals a high prevalence of erosions at four months after symptom onset. Ann Rheumatic Dis 1998; 57: 350-356.
  101. Means R.T.Jr. Advances in the anemia of chronic disease. Int J Hematol 1999; 70: 7-12.
  102. Meek R.L., Urieli-Shoval S., Benditt E.P. Expression of apolipoprotein serum amyloid A mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions and cultured vascular cells: implications for serum amyloid A function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 1994; 91: 3186-3190.
  103. Migita K., Eguchi K., Tsukada T. et al. Increased circulating serum amyloid A protein derivatives in rheumatoid arthritis patients with secondary amyloidosis. Laboratory Investigation 1996; 75: 371-375.
  104. Mozes G., Friedman N., Shainkin-Kestenbaum R. Serum amyloid A: an extremely sensitive marker for intensity of tissue damage in trauma patients and indicator of acute response in various diseases. Journal of Trauma 1989; 29: 71-74.
  105. Mutru O., Laakso M., Isomaki H., Koota K. Ten year mortality and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1985; 290: 1797-1799.
  106. Myllykangas-Luosujarvi R., Aho K., Kautiainen H., Hakala M. Amyloidosis in a nationwide series of 1666 subjects with rheumatoid arthritis who died during 1989 in Finland. Rheumatology 1999; 38: 499-503.
  107. Nielen M.M., Van Schaardenburg D., Reesink H.W., Twisk J.W.R. et al. Increased levels of C-reactive protein in serum from blood donors before the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 2004; 50: 2423-2427.
  108. Niewold T.A., Hol P.R., Andel A.C.J. et al. Enhancement of amyloid induction by amyloid fibril fragments in hamster. Laboratory Investigation 1987; 56: 544-549.
  109. Okuda Y., Takasugi K., Oyama T. et al. Amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical study of 124 histologically proven cases. Ryumachi 1994; 34: 939-946.
  110. Ollier W.E., MacGregor A. Genetic epidemiology of rheumatoid disease. Br Med Bull 1995; 51: 267-285.
  111. Olsen N.J., Stein C.M. New drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 350: 2167-2179.
  112. Orpiszewski J., Benson M.D. Fibrillogenèse. In: Grateau G., Benson M.D., Delpech M., ed. Les amyloses. Paris: Flammarion Médecine-Sciences 2000; 63-94.
  113. Panayi G.S., Corrigall V.M., Pitzalis C.G. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The role of T cells and other beasts. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 2001; 27: 2.
  114. Patel H., Fellowes R., Coade S., Woo P. Human serum amyloid A has cytokine-like properties. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 1998; 48: 410-418.
  115. Peeters H.R., Jongen-Lavrencic M., Raja A.N. et al. Course and characteristics of anaemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of recent onset. Ann Rheum Dis 1996; 55: 162-168.
  116. Pepys M., Baltz M.L. Acute phase proteins with special reference to C-reactive protein and related proteins (pentraxins) and serum amyloid A protein. Advances in Immunology 1983; 34: 141-212.
  117. Preciado-Patt L., Hershkoviz R., Fridkin M., Lider O. Serum amyloid A binds specific extracellular matrix glycoproteins and induces the adhesion of resting CD4+ T cells. Journal of Immunology 1996; 156: 1189-1195.
  118. Ronningen K.S., Spurkland A., Egaland T. et al. Rheumatoid arthritis may be primarily associated with HLA-DR4 molecules sharing a particular sequence at residues 67-74. Tissue Antigens 1990; 36: 235-240.
  119. Scheinberg M.A., Benson M.D. SAA amyloid protein levels in amyloid-prone chronic inflammatory disorders. Lack of association with amyloid disease. J Rheumatol 1980; 7: 724-726.
  120. Schena F.P., Pannarale G., Carbonara M.C. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of renal amyloidosis. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 1996; 11: 63-68.
  121. Serpell L.C., Sunde M., Blake C.C.F. The molecular basis of amyloidosis. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 1997; 53: 871-887.
  122. Shiozawa S., Hayashi S., Tsukamoto Y., Goko H., Kawasaki H. et al. Identification of the gene loci that predispose to rheumatoid arthritis. International Immunology 1998; 10: 1891-1895.
  123. Shirahama T., Miura K., Ju S.T. et al. Amyloid enhancing factor-loaded macrophages in amyloid fibril formation. Laboratory Investigation 1990; 62: 62-68.
  124. Silman A.J., MacGregor A.J., Thomson W. et al. Twin concordance rates for rheumatoid arthritis: results from a nationwide study. Br J Rheumatol 1993; 32: 903-907.
  125. Simms R.W., Prout M.N., Cohen A.S. The epidemiology of AL and AA amyloidosis. Baillière’s Clinical Rheumatology 1994; 8: 627-634.
  126. Simons M., Isner J.M. Assessment of relative sensitivities of noninvasive tests for cardiac amyloidosis in documented cardiac amyloidosis. American Journal of Cardiology 1992; 69: 425-427.
  127. Sipe J.D., Cohen A.S. History of the amyloid fibril. Journal of Structural Biology 2000; 130: 88-98.
  128. Smith K.A. Регуляция функций Т- и В-клеток лимфокинами. Иммунология в 3т. Под ред. William E. Paul. М: Мир 1987-88; 2: 396-420.
  129. Snow A.D., Willmer J., Kisilevsky R. A close ultrastructural relationship between sulfated proteoglycans and AA amyloid fibrils. Laboratory Investigation 1987; 57: 687-698.
  130. Steel D.M., Whitehead A.S. The major acute phase reactants: C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A protein. Immunology Today 1994; 15: 81-88.
  131. Strege R.J., Saeger W., Linke R.P. Diagnosis and immunohistochemical classification of systemic amyloidosis. Report of 43 cases in unselected autopsy series. Virchows Archiv 1998; 433: 19-27.
  132. Sumiya M., Ohya N., Shinoura H. et al. Diffuse interstitial pulmonary amyloidosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology 1996; 23: 933-936.
  133. Suzuki A., Ohosone Y., Obana M., Mita S. et al. Cause of death in 81 autopsied patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 33-36.
  134. Taylor G.A., Carballo E., Lee D.M. et al. A pathogenetic role for TNF alpha in the syndrome of cachexia, arthritis, and autoimmunity resulting from tristetraprolin (TTP) deficiency. Immunity 1996; 4: 445-454.
  135. Tennet G.A., Lovat L.B., Pepys M.B. Serum amyloid P component prevents proteolysis of the amyloid of Alzheimer’s disease and systemic amyloidosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 4299-4303.
  136. Trabandt A., Gay R.E., Fassbender H.G., Gay S. Cathepsin B in synovial cells at the site of joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Аrthritis Rheum 1991; 34: 1444-1451.
  137. Tuglular S., Yalcinkaya F., Paydas S., Oner A. et al. A retrospective analysis for aetiology and clinical findings of 287 secondary amyloidosis cases in Turkey. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2002; 17: 2003-2005.
  138. Uguccioni M., Meliconi R., Lalli E. et al. Рrotein concentration in bone marrow transplantation for beta-thalassaemia. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1992; 45: 348-351.
  139. Urieli-Shoval S., Cohen P., Eisenberg S., Matzner Y. Widespread expression of serum amyloid A in histologically normal human tissues. Predominant localization to the epithelium. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 1998; 46: 1377-1384.
  140. Van der Heide D. et al. Lancet 1989; 1: 1036-1038.
  141. Varga J., Flinn M.S., Shirahama T. et al. The induction of accelerated murine amyloid with human splenic extract. Probable role of amyloid enhancing factor. Virchows Archiv 1986; 51: 177-185.
  142. Voulgari P.V., Kolios G., Papadopoulos G.K. et al. Role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of anemia of chronic disease in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Immunol 1999; 92: 153-160.
  143. Wakhlu A., Krisnani N., Hissaria P., Aggarwal A., Misra R. Prevalence of secondary amyloidosis in Asian North Indian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Rheumatology 2003; 30(5): 948-951.
  144. Weinstein P.S., Skinner M., Sipe J.D. et al. Acute phase proteins or tumor markers: the role of SAA, SAP, CRP and CEA as indicators of metastasis in a broad spectrum of neoplastic diseases. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 1984; 19: 193-198.
  145. Westermark P., Sletten K., Westermark G.T., Raynes J., McAdam K.P. A protein AA-variant derived from a novel serum AA protein, SAA1, in an individual from Papua New Guinea. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 223: 320-323.
  146. Williams R.O., Feldmann M., Maini R.N. Anti-tumor necrosis factor ameliorates joint disease in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 9784-9788.
  147. Wood N.C., Dickens E., Symons J.A., Duff G.W. In situ hybridization of interleukin-1 in CD14-positive cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1992; 62: 295-300.
  148. Wordsworth B.P., Lanchbury J.S., Sakkas L.I., Welsh K.I. et al. HLA-DR4 subtype frequencies in rheumatoid arthritis indicate that DRB1 is the major susceptibility locus within the HLA class II region. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 10049-10053.
  149. Yamada T., Kluve-Beckerman B., Liepnieks J.J., Benson M.D. In vivo degradation of serum amyloid A by cathepsin D and other acid proteases: possible protection against fibril formation. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 1995; 41: 570-574.
  150. Yamanishi Y., Firestein G.S. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The role of synoviocytes. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 2001; 27: 2.
  151. Young A. et al. Brit J Rheumat 1993; 32: 97.
  152. Zhang Z., Bridges S.L. Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The role of B-lymphocytes. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 2001; 27: 2.

Другие статьи по теме


Навигация по статьям
Разделы журнала
Наиболее читаемые статьи
Журнал "Нефрология и диализ"